Raising a shout suddenly, that by this intimation those who were besieged in the town might learn their arrival, they began to cast down hurdles and dislodge our men from the rampart by slings, arrows, and stones, and executed the other movements which are requisite in storming. Behind these he raised a rampart and wall twelve feet high; to this he added a parapet and battlements, with large stakes cut like stags' horns, projecting from the junction of the parapet and battlements, to prevent the enemy from scaling it, and surrounded the entire work with turrets, which were eighty feet distant from one another. The Arverni and Sequani decide to get help in their struggle from Germanic mercenaries from across the Rhine, led by a king named Ariovistus. Labienus wages war against the Treviri. , It is often lauded for its polished, clear Latin. De Bello Gallico: Liber VI - Kapitel XII. Accordingly, the Romans stopped their pursuit and headed for the Aedui town of Bibracte. If our men seemed to be distressed, or hard pressed in any quarter, Caesar usually ordered the troops to advance, and the army to wheel round in that quarter; which conduct retarded the enemy in the pursuit, and encouraged our men by the hope of support. The town Alesia commanded a view of the whole plain. The Gauls within, despairing of forcing the fortifications in the plains on account of the greatness of the works, attempt the places precipitous in ascent: hither they bring the engines which they had prepared; by the immense number of their missiles they dislodge the defenders from the turrets: they fill the ditches with clay and hurdles, then clear the way; they tear down the rampart and breast-work with hooks. When these came to the Roman fortifications, weeping, they begged of the soldiers by every entreaty to receive them as slaves and relieve them with food. The Romans sail to Britain to begin their campaign. What courage do you think would our relatives and friends have, if eighty thousand men were butchered in one spot, supposing that they should be forced to come to an action almost over our corpses? To this place embassadors are sent by the Arveni, who promise that they will execute his commands. The Suebi try repeatedly to bargain with Caesar but to no avail. After arranging these matters, he levies ten thousand infantry on the Aedui and Segusiani, who border on our province: to these he adds eight hundred horse. The Aedui are highly indignant at being deprived of the chief command; they lament the change of fortune, and miss Caesar's indulgence toward them; however, after engaging in the war, they do not dare to pursue their own measures apart from the rest. Cesare - De Bello Gallico Libro VII I - L'assemblea dei capi Quieta Gallia Caesar, ut constituerat, in Italiam ad conventus agendos proficiscitur. Caesarâs attention is momentarily diverted to Gallia Belgica as Indutiomarus and Cingetorix struggle for power over the Treveri. On this circumstance being announced, Caesar orders his cavalry also to form three divisions and charge the enemy. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination.. The Helvii, voluntarily engaging in battle with their neighbors, are defeated, and Caius Valerius Donotaurus, the son of Caburus, the principal man of the state, and several others, being slain, they are forced to retire within their towns and fortifications. Pompey, the proconsul, that since he was remaining near the city invested with military command for the interests of the commonwealth, he … But those within, while they bring forward those things which had been prepared by Vercingetorix for a sally, fill up the nearest trenches; having delayed a long time in executing these movements, they learned the retreat of their countrymen before they drew nigh to the fortifications. Caesar puts his legions in winter quarters among various tribes of Gaul. The Romans defeat Ariovistus, and Caesar is overjoyed to find and rescue C. Valerius Procillus, the envoy who had earlier been captured by Ariovistus. Sedulius the general and chief of the Lemovices is slain; Vergasillaunus the Arvernian, is taken alive in the flight, seventy-four military standards are brought to Caesar, and few out of so great a number return safe to their camp. After quelling a rebellion among the Bituriges, Caesar rewards his troops with large monetary bonuses. Cassivellaunus orders the tribes in Kent to attack the British ships, but they are defeated. Excessive Violence Other Roman troops are wintering among the Nervii under Quintus Tullius Cicero (brother of the famous orator). Ariovistus and the events he was part of are known from Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Reproduction Date: Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The Mandubii, who had admitted them into the town, are compelled to go forth with their wives and children. 7.83 The Gauls, having been twice repulsed with great loss, consult what they should do; they avail themselves of the information of those who were well acquainted with the country; from them they ascertain the position and fortification of the upper camp. Labienus defeats the Treveri and captures their leaders. Huic, cum proelio dimicare constituerunt, ea quae bello ceperint plerumque devovent: cumsuperaverunt, animalia capta immolant reliquasque res Tres nobilissimi Aedui capti ad Caesarem perducuntur: Cotus, praefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum Convictolitavi proximis comitiis habuerat, et Cavarillus, qui post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copiis praefuerat, et Eporedorix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Aedui cum Sequanis bello … The rest, on observing this action, fearing lest they should be surrounded, betake themselves to flight. Caesar chose a nearby hill to offer battle and the Roman legions stood to face their enemies (De Bello Gallico, I, … They came together in great numbers and from every quarter to the same place. The Romans defeat Commius. The Britons initially catch the Romans off guard, but the Romans regroup and rout the Britons. Hampered by fear and surprise, the Romans suffer losses but eventually mount a defense. A great number of these having been collected, when Caesar was marching into the country of the Sequani, through the confines of the Lingones, in order that he might the more easily render aid to the province, Vercingetorix encamped in three camps, about ten miles from the Romans: and having summoned the commanders of the cavalry to a council, he shows that the time of victory was come; that the Romans were fleeing into the Province and leaving Gaul; that this was sufficient for obtaining immediate freedom; but was of little moment in acquiring peace and tranquillity for the future; for the Romans would return after assembling greater forces and would not put an end to the war. The Sigambri retreat, and Caesar arrives, complaining that the troops had not been kept within the camp, as he had ordered. A supplication of twenty-days is decreed by the senate at Rome, on learning these successes from Caesar's dispatches. The next day, the Germans send a large number of their leaders and elders to negotiate with Caesar. 7.88 His arrival being known from the color of his robe, and the troops of cavalry, and the cohorts which he had ordered to follow him being seen, as these low and sloping grounds were plainly visible from the eminences, the enemy join battle. Ariovistus Replies • “I’m!here,!because!Gauls!asked!me!to!be.! In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Caesar campaigns against them and defeats them. Caesar travels to Italy in order to encourage the people to vote for Mark Antony, his close associate, for the office of augur. Two other smaller tribes, the German Usipetes and Tencteri, are tired of being oppressed by the Suebi so they decide to go west, crossing the Rhine and moving into the territory of the Belgae (more specifically the Menapii). They surrender Vercingetorix, and lay down their arms. Onder hen zijn Diviciacus en Vercingetorix opmerkelijk vanwege hun bijdragen aan de Galliërs tijdens de oorlog. Do not utterly deprive them of your aid, for they have spurned all thoughts of personal danger on account of your safety; nor by your folly, rashness, and cowardice, crush all Gaul and doom it to an eternal slavery. Caesar describes a conflict with the Gallic tribe known as the Helvetii. Caesar hastens to share in the action. Caesar then went back to Gergovia and realised that his siege would fail. 7.83 The Gauls, having been twice repulsed with great loss, consult what they should do; they avail themselves of the information of those who were well acquainted with the country; from them they ascertain the position and fortification of the upper camp. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar after the battle of Alesia. He sprung from the noblest family among the Arverni, and possessing great influence, says, "I shall pay no attention to the opinion of those who call a most disgraceful surrender by the name of a capitulation; nor do I think that they ought to be considered as citizens, or summoned to the council. After twenty-five grueling days of constructing siege works under great stress, the Romans attack and trap the Gauls in the town. Bohn (1869), Classics.MIT.edu, 2009. But what other motive or wish have the Romans, than, induced by envy, to settle in the lands and states of those whom they have learned by fame to be noble and powerful in war, and impose on them perpetual slavery? He orders their arms to be surrendered, and their chieftains delivered up. If you can not be assured by their dispatches, since every avenue is blocked up, take the Romans as evidence that there approach is drawing near; since they, intimidated by alarm at this, labor night and day at their works. If the infantry should [be obliged to] relieve their cavalry, and be retarded by doing so, the march could not be accomplished: if, abandoning their baggage they should provide for their safety (a result which, he trusted, was more like to ensue), they would lose both property and character. The idea uppermost in the minds of both parties is, that the present is the time in which they would have the fairest opportunity of making a struggle; the Gauls despairing of all safety, unless they should succeed in forcing the lines: the Romans expecting an end to all their labors if they should gain the day. Acco, their leader, is forced to ask for pardon and give hostages to Caesar as collateral. After renewing the action, and repulsing the enemy, he marches in the direction in which he had sent Labienus, drafts four cohorts from the nearest redoubt, and orders part of the cavalry to follow him, and part to make the circuit of the external fortifications and attack the enemy in the rear. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Caius Antistius Reginus, and Caius Caninius Rebilus, two of the lieutenants, with two legions, were in possession of this camp. The Romans stop the Carnutes from waging war against the Bituriges. He stations Quintus Tullius Cicero, and Publius Sulpicius among the Aedui at Cabillo and Matisco on the Saone, to procure supplies of corn. Do you doubt their fidelity and firmness because they have not come at the appointed day? The Aedui (allies of Rome) are engaged in a power struggle with two other tribes called the Arverni and the Sequani. Caesar then takes military action against Ariovistus, both because the Aedui are allies of Rome, and because he wants to stop the flow of Germanics from across the Rhine into Gaul, which neighbors upon Rome. The Helvii, voluntarily engaging in battle with their neighbors, are defeated, and Caius Valerius Donotaurus, the son of Caburus, the principal man of the state, and several others, being slain, they are forced to retire within their towns and fortifications. After bloody fighting, the Romans are victorious. But on the seventh day, thinking that it would not be dangerous, Cicero allows some troops to exit the camp to forage for food. Since Vercingetorix was inside Alesia, the Gauls attacking from the outside were without his leadership. The Bellovaci try to get other tribes to join in their rebellion. He orders their arms to be surrendered, and their chieftains delivered up. When the Gauls were confident that their countrymen were the conquerors in the action, and beheld our men hard pressed by numbers, both those who were hemmed in by the line of circumvallation and those who had come to aid them, supported the spirits of their men by shouts and yells from every quarter. The circuit of that fortification, which was commenced by the Romans, comprised eleven miles. He demands a great number of hostages. 7.73 It was necessary, at one and the same time, to procure timber [for the rampart], lay in supplies of corn, and raise also extensive fortifications, and the available troops were in consequence of this reduced in number, since they used to advance to some distance from the camp, and sometimes the Gauls endeavored to attack our works, and to make a sally from the town by several gates and in great force. All view being prevented by the darkness, many wounds are received on both sides; several missiles, are thrown from the engines. Sedulius the general and chief of the Lemovices is slain; Vergasillaunus the Arvernian, is taken alive in the flight, seventy-four military standards are brought to Caesar, and few out of so great a number return safe to their camp. Caesar, having conveyed his baggage to the nearest hill, and having left two legions to guard it, pursued as far as the time of day would permit, and after slaying about three thousand of the rear of the enemy, encamped at Alesia on the next day. Caesar, as he perceived that the enemy were superior in cavalry, and he himself could receive no aid from the Province or Italy, while all communication was cut off, sends across the Rhine into Germany to those states which he had subdued in the preceding campaigns, and summons from them cavalry and the light-armed infantry, who were accustomed to engage among them. The besieged run together when these auxiliaries were seen; mutual congratulations ensue, and the minds of all are elated with joy. 7.70 The work having been begun, a cavalry action ensues in that plain, which we have already described as broken by hills, and extending three miles in length. A shout being raised by both sides, it was succeeded by a general shout along the ramparts and whole line of fortifications. When battle between the Germanics and the Romans finally commences, there is fierce hand-to-hand combat. The cavalry unanimously shout out, "That they ought to bind themselves by a most sacred oath, that he should not be received under a roof, nor have access to his children, parents, or wife, who shall not twice have ridden through the enemy's army." Having got possession of the hostages whom Caesar had deposited with them, they terrify the hesitating by putting them to death. Ibi cognoscit de Clodii caede [de] senatusque consulto certior factus, ut omnes iuniores Italiae coniurarent, delectum tota provincia habere instituit. 7.77 But those who were blockaded at Alesia, the day being past, on which they had expected auxiliaries from their countrymen, and all their corn being consumed ignorant of what was going on among the Aedui, convened an assembly and deliberated on the exigency of their situation. To do as our ancestors did in the war against the Cimbri and Teutones, which was by no means equally momentous who, when driven into their towns, and oppressed by similar privations, supported life by the corpses of those who appeared useless for war on account of their age, and did not surrender to the enemy: and even if we had not a precedent for such cruel conduct, still I should consider it most glorious that one should be established, and delivered to posterity. He builds elaborate siege works with the intention of completely encircling and starving the Gauls inside. After various opinions had been expressed among them, some of which proposed a surrender, others a sally, while their strength would support it, the speech of Critognatus ought not to be omitted for its singular and detestable cruelty. The least elevation of ground, added to a declivity, exercises a momentous influence. Caesar lays waste to the territory of the Menapii, and they sue for peace. 7.80 Caesar, having stationed his army on both sides of the fortifications, in order that, if occasion should arise, each should hold and know his own post, orders the cavalry to issue forth from the camp and commence action. They appoint over their forces Vergasillaunus, the Arvernian, one of the four generals, and a near relative of Vercingetorix. A great slaughter ensues; some leave their horses, and endeavor to cross the ditch and climb the wall. In other parts, likewise, our men pursued to the camp the retreating enemy, and did not give them an opportunity of rallying. Our men have no longer arms or strength. The principal struggle is at the upper lines, to which as we have said Vergasillaunus was sent. Qui avarico expugnato refugerant, armandos vestiendosque curat; His rebus celeriter id quod avarici deperierat; Interim teutomatus, olloviconis filius, rex nitiobrigum, cuius; Caesar avarici complures dies commoratus summamque ibi 7.67 This proposal receiving general approbation, and all being forced to take the oath, on the next day the cavalry were divided into three parts, and two of these divisions made a demonstration on our two flanks; while one in front began to obstruct our march. They engage on all sides at once and every expedient is adopted. When Caesar learns of their plan to cross over a Roman province, a conflict arises, pitting the Romans against the Helvetii.  After giving these instructions he silently dismisses the cavalry in the second watch, [on that side] where our works were not completed; he orders all the corn to be brought to himself; he ordains capital punishment to such as should not obey; he distributes among them, man by man, the cattle, great quantities of which had been driven there by the Mandubii; he began to measure out the corn sparingly, and by little and little; he receives into the town all the forces which he had posted in front of it. They surrender Vercingetorix, and lay down their arms. The Sigambri, a Germanic tribe, come and take a large amount of cattle. Caesar thought that further additions should be made to these works, in order that the fortifications might be defensible by a small number of soldiers. But Caesar, placing guards on the rampart, forbade them to be admitted. Since Caesar is one of the characters in the AstÃ©rix and ObÃ©lix albums, RenÃ© Goscinny included gags for French schoolchildren who had the Commentarii as a textbook. After arranging these matters, he levies ten thousand infantry on the Aedui and Segusiani, who border on our province: to these he adds eight hundred horse. To this place embassadors are sent by the Arveni, who promise that they will execute his commands. SÃ£o JosÃ© do Rio Preto, Junho de 2002 3 ApresentaÃ§Ã£o - CecÃlia Demian 1 A Carta Perdid... ...u mestre, formado no CaraÃ§a, que exigia da classe a traduÃ§Ã£o de parte do âBello Gallico â de CÃ©sar e a anÃ¡lise lÃ³gica do primeiro canto dos LusÃada... ...re, formado no CaraÃ§a, que exigia da classe a traduÃ§Ã£o de parte do âBello Gallico â de CÃ©sar e a anÃ¡lise lÃ³gica do primeiro canto dos LusÃadas. At first the Bituriges resist, but then join forces with the Arverni. GALLIA est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam … 7.71 Vercingetorix adopts the design of sending away all his cavalry by night, before the fortifications should be completed by the Romans. Caesar moves quickly to rendezvous with his legions wintering among the Lingones before Vercingetorix can realize what is happening. Caesar is distracted from the siege by betrayal from his Gallic allies the Aedui, led by Litaviccus whom he fought and defeated after a desperate struggle. Accordingly, drawing out their troops, they encamp before the town, and cover the nearest trench with hurdles and fill it up with earth, and make ready for a sally and every casualty. Engaging the Eburones is difficult because the terrain of the area provides the Eburones with numerous opportunities to hide from the Romans. The military conflict that follows culminates in a huge battle with the toughest of all the Belgae, the Nervii. In response to this, Caesar lays waste to the territory of the Nervii, neighbors of the Treveri. The leaders of the enemy, having reconnoitered the country by their scouts, select from the entire army sixty thousand men, belonging to those states, which bear the highest character for courage; they privately arrange among themselves what they wished to be done, and in what manner; they decide that the attack should take place when it should seem to be noon. On the other side he sends the Gabali and the nearest cantons of the Arverni against the Helvii; he likewise sends the Ruteni and Cadurci to lay waste the territories of the Volcae Arecomici. Those who voluntarily offer themselves to death are more easily found than those who would calmly endure distress. The leaders of the enemy, having reconnoitered the country by their scouts, select from the entire army sixty thousand men, belonging to those states, which bear the highest character for courage; they privately arrange among themselves what they wished to be done, and in what manner; they decide that the attack should take place when it should seem to be noon. Caesar personally stays in Gaul all winter due to the risk of unrest among the Gallic tribes. On this circumstance being announced, Caesar orders his cavalry also to form three divisions and charge the enemy. Two rivers, on two different sides, washed the foot of the hill. When many were evidently taking the side of the Gauls and Germanics, the time had come for him to act on public opinion. Several of our soldiers were unexpectedly wounded by these, and left the battle. Obtestari et more Gallico passum capillum ostentare liberosque in conspectum proferre coeperunt war against the Bituriges, Caesar constructs sturdy! 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