Rippley et al. In other words, initially, scavenging activity starts as a “displacement” behavior, and then as a result of the animal confined in a closed space, it continues as a result of starvation. 1898.1Outdoor postmortem animal scavenger modification is a common finding in corpses exposed to the natural surroundings. Destructive changes seem to focus on a certain area. Besides, if the corpse is in shallow water, other terrestrial predators may harm the corpse . Postmortem ant feeding causes formation of generally superficial, serpiginous, parchmentized, and irregular-shaped skin lesions [8, 17, 24] (Figure 1). The first case belonged to a 25-year-old woman who had been found 4 days in a nearly skeletonized state after she had drowned. Makino et al. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. During each stage, experts pay close attention to maggots, the wormlike larvae of blowflies, wriggling in a corpse’s flesh. Zerrin Erkol and Erdem Hösükler (February 14th 2018). They move actively when they search for food . It has been determined that ravens prefer to feed on corpses at sunrise and sunset during summer months, while during cold winter months, they prefer to feed during hot daytime hours . Dumser et al. Cockroaches may cause superficial dermal abrasions resembling skin diseases . In indoor setting, attacks of dogs at corpse may start soon after death, in other words within hours [27, 28]. In December 2016, stray dogs devoured the corpse of a female tourist outside the post-mortem room of Bihar Hospital in India. Postmortem Animal Attacks on Human Corpses IntechOpen. Autopsies had disclosed the presence of postmortem wounds, which had been attributed to a large water monitor, i.e., kabaragoya (Varanus salvator salvator), and which is the second largest lizard after Komodo monster living in Sri Lanka. Postmortem animal activity is an important step in incorporating protein, fat, and carbohydrates in corpses to the food chain. Witnesses said that they had seen the victim had drunk a lot and had become unconscious when she was alive, and her red setter dog had bitten her legs and licked her face to arouse her. Dominguez-Rodrigue and Piqueras  categorized the carnivorans based on pit lengths and widths they created on cancellous bone as follows: pit length < 4 mm, small-sized canines (jackals), and medium-sized Felidae (leopard and cheetah); pit length: 4–6 mm: (medium-large sized carnivorans (members of the Felidae family, excluding lion); pit length: > 6 mm: large-sized carnivorans (hyena and lion); pit width: < 2 mm small-sized members of the Felidae family; pit width: > 4 mm: hyena, bear, lion, and dog. Multiple punctate wounds with irregular edges can be seen secondary to crocodile bites . Murmann et al. Skin and soft tissue artifacts due to postmortem damage caused by rodents. Check out these 10 very disturbing animal attacks. Students in medical school study and dissect cadavers as a part of their education. Byard  detected congested face due to hanging, widespread lesions around neck and chin caused by ant bites, and diffuse blood spots on the face and shirt of a 51-year-old hanging victim. At the incident site, widespread tissue defects on the face of the victim and rodent feces and in a drawer a golden hamster wrapped in paper towels were found. Common soft and muscle tissue loss on right cheek, nose, and upper lip due to postmortem Canidae scavenging (Archive of Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey). The third corpse belonged to a 70-year-old male who was found 20 hours after he had fallen into water following a heart attack. It was reported that in North Atlantic a corpse of a whale weighing 50–100 kg found at 4000–8000 m deep might become a mere skeleton due to postmortem feeding within 15 days. , a 54-year-old woman who remained at home with her two dogs had died probably 4 weeks ago. Pits are caused by collapsing of the bone under masticatory forces created by the tip of the teeth during chewing act, but they do not penetrate into the bone cortex [34, 35, 36, 37]. X-ray of the Pitbull Terrier found at the incident site revealed radiolucent material (jewelry and teeth) in its stomach. Stages Of Death Different Stages The Body Goes Through. The feeding patterns of species of large sharks on human corpses are well documented in the literature however, that of smaller ... trauma (e.g. … Death and the changes that follow have been ingrained in society since the dawn of history. In deep waters, scavengers’ consumption rate of the corpse may differ based on the depth of the sea where the corpse was found, latitude, and type of food . On the edges of the wounds, teeth marks peculiar to rats were detected, and pneumonia was implicated for her cause of death  (Figure 6a,b). Tiger Attacks Woman. By Zerrin Erkol and Erdem Hösükler. Submitted: May 5th 2017Reviewed: December 5th 2017Published: February 14th 2018, Home > Books > Post Mortem Examination and Autopsy - Current Issues From Death to Laboratory Analysis. Part of book: Post Mortem Examination and Autopsy - Current Issues From Death to Laboratory Analysis. On the temporal onset of postmortem animal scavenging. Salem et al. Faunal succession of insects and flies, which is especially used to determine the postmortem interval, may change leading to erroneous estimation of the postmortem interval [4, 24]. Sea lice (Natatolana woodjonesi) are isopods nearly 2.5 cm in length that live on sand surface and in shallow waters. Cave canem: bite mark analysis in a fatal dog pack attack. Wide lesions on the neck of the corpse created by the domestic mongrel dog were found without any defense wounds on her body. There have been some truly insane animal attacks on humans caught on camera over the last few years. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Postmortem Artifacts Made by Ants and the Effect of Ant Activity on Decompositional Rates. Many animal species are members of this food chain. During histochemical examination, fibroblastic enzymes (esterases, acid phosphatase, and ATPase) may be analyzed. Birds can tear away intact skin, but they primarily prefer to feed on the places where skin integrity is disrupted or eroded. In this chapter, the subject of postmortem animal attacks on human corpses will be evaluated by revising the recent references. Many animal species are members of this food chain. Postmortem injuries inflicted by domestic golden hamster: morphological aspects and evidence by DNA typing.  presented a 27-year-old epileptic woman found dead at her home. Behavior pattern of birds and bird species exerting scavenging activity demonstrate seasonal and regional variation . As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. During postmortem period, lesions caused by animal attacks may be evaluated and misinterpreted as antemortem lesions as ligature mark, firearm wound, or stab wound [2, 7, 9, 10, 13, 20]. However, it creates cuts in soft tissues of the corpse as if formed with a sharp tools. Wounds caused by animals belonging to the Felidae family have sharper and smooth edges just as cut by a knife, and on the edges of the wounds, linear, scratch-type lesions formed by paws may be detected [10, 29, 44, 85]. Dettling et al. Irregular wound margin and disclosed underlying muscle and tendon (Archive of Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey). Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. In order to identify the animal that attacked the corpse, the location of the corpse, geographic conditions, season, animal species found in the area, types of animal feeding, and behaviors should be known . Figure 8. When the rodent has enough time for feeding, it devours naked, unclothed, easily accessible parts of the body such as face and arms, till bones, (Figure 5) and this situation may create problems in identification of the victim. Postmortem Animal Attacks on Human Corpses, Post Mortem Examination and Autopsy - Current Issues From Death to Laboratory Analysis, Kamil Hakan Dogan, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72929. It was determined that postmortem rodent injuries, detected at autopsy but not in the photographs taken at the scene and in the reports of the scene investigator, had taken place within a short time as approximately 45–60 minutes . Oval, hemorrhagic lesions of 0.2 cm in diameter in the middle of red-colored ecchymosis of 1 cm in diameter due to postmortem small sea creature scavenging (Archive of Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey). Postmortem Animal Attacks on Human Corpses . Therefore, signs of vitality on wound site, presence of bleeding, and results of histological examinations to be performed are very important in discrimination between antemortem and postmortem dog attack . Areas they prefer are lips, eyelids, and upper extremities that exposed the underlying tissue! 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