sack of amorium

[6], In 837, Theophilos decided—at the urging of the hard-pressed Babak—to take advantage of the Caliphate's preoccupation with the suppression of the Khurramite revolt and lead a major campaign against the frontier emirates. He assembled a very large army,a[›] some 70,000 fighting men and 100,000 in total according to al-Tabari, and invaded Arab territory around the upper Euphrates almost unopposed. As Iconoclasm relied heavily on military success for its legitimization, the fall of Amorium contributed decisively to its abandonment shortly after Theophilos's death in 842. A little over a year after Theophilos's death, on 11 March 843, a synod restored the veneration of icons, and iconoclasm was declared heretical. Its strategic location in central Asia Minor made the city a vital stronghold against the armies of the Arab Caliphate following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. A tower was pushed over the filled moat, but became stuck midway and it and the other siege engines had to be abandoned and burned. Many of its inhabitants were slaughtered, and the remainder driven off as slaves. Leaving a part of his army under a relative to watch the crossings of the Halys, Theophilos immediately departed with most of his army, some 40,000 men according to Michael the Syrian, to confront the smaller Arab force. [23][25][26], The Arab army marched in three separate corps, with Ashinas once again in front, the caliph in the middle, and Afshin bringing up the rear. Theophilos reportedly fell ill soon after the city's fall, and although he recovered, his health remained in poor state until his death, three years later. [43] After years of captivity and no hope of ransom, the rest were urged to convert to Islam. Top subscription boxes – right to your door, © 1996-2020, Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. Bring your club to Amazon Book Clubs, start a new book club and invite your friends to join, or find a club that’s right for you for free. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Excavations began in 1988 under the direction of Professor R. Martin Harrison from the University of Oxford with the intention of investigating the size and nature of the Byzantine city (sixth–eleventh century). sack of amorium - Free download as Text File (.txt), PDF File (.pdf) or read online for free. ISSN, http://books.google.com/books?id=Nw84AAAAIAAJ, http://www.archive.org/details/ahistoryeastern00burygoog, http://books.google.com/books?id=YQ5DYgEACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=OVyjQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=3oCI8BVxcB8C&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q&f=false, "Campaign of the Arabs in Asia Minor, 838", http://books.google.com/books?id=3TysAAAAIAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=jlTPAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=bFh-ASmKksYC, The Amorium Excavations Project – 25 Years of Archaeology: 1987-2012, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia. According to the legend of the 42 Martyrs, he converted to Islam, but was nevertheless executed by the caliph alongside the other captives; unlike the others, however, whose bodies "miraculously" floated in the water of the river Tigris, his sank to the bottom. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. In the 830s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. Please try again. The surviving population were divided as slaves among the army leaders, except for the city's military and civic leaders, who were reserved for the caliph's disposal. Sack of Amorium – Abbasids under Caliph al-Mu'tasim besiege and sack the city of Amorium 844 – Battle of Mauropotamos – Abbasid army defeats the Byzantines under Theoktistos 853 – Sack of Damietta – Byzantine fleet raids and captures the port of Damietta in Egypt The Siege and Sack of Amorium The political situation of the Empire was often unsettled in the best of times. The caliphal court was outraged by the brutality and brazenness of the raids: not only had the Byzantines acted in open collusion with the Khurramite rebels, but during the sack of Sozopetra—which some sources claim as Mu'tasim's own birthplaceb[›]—all male prisoners were executed and the rest sold into slavery, and some captive women were raped by Theophilos's Khurramites. He sought to bolster his regime and support his religious policies by military success against the Abbasid Caliphate, the Empire's major antagonist. Please try again. For a detailed survey, see Whittow 1996, pp. The Byzantines then counter-attacked and sacked Damietta in Egypt. [22][23] Theophilos quickly began regrouping his forces and sent the general Theodore Krateros to Ancyra. a text document about the sack of amorium This had the added benefit of confirming the presence of a widespread and consistent destruction layer that should probably be associated with a major historical event, namely the siege and sack of Amorium in 838. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery and exclusive access to music, movies, TV shows, original audio series, and Kindle books. It was also the birthplace of Theophilos's father, Michael II the Amorian (r. 820–829), and perhaps of Theophilos himself. al-Mu'tasim was born in 794 to Harun al-Rashid. 43–67. Though they were people of rank in their lifetimes, most of them are not known to posterity by name or even position. Media in category "Sack of Amorium" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. Later Byzantine historians attribute his death before the age of thirty to his sorrow over the impact of the city's loss, although this is most likely a legend. After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. [12], With the Khurramite threat over, the caliph began marshalling his forces for a reprisal campaign against Byzantium. By 829, when the young emperor Theophilos ascended the Byzantine throne, the Byzantines and Arabs had been fighting sporadically for almost two centuries. [13] A huge Arab army gathered at Tarsus; according to the most reliable account, that of Michael the Syrian, it numbered some 80,000 men with 30,000 servants and camp followers and 70,000 pack animals. آموریونون یاغمالانماسی (اینگیلیسجه: Sack of Amorium) عباسی خلافتی و بیزانس ایمپیراتورلوغو قوشونو آراسیندا باش وئرن دؤیوش.بیزانس - عرب ساواش‌لارینین بیر قیسمی‌دیر. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. [15] The capital of the powerful Anatolic Theme, the city was strategically located at the western edge of the Anatolian plateau and controlled the main southern route followed by the Arab invasions. They are commemorated … At the time, Amorium was one of the largest cities in the Byzantine Empire, ranking in importance immediately after Constantinople. [23][24] The caliph's vanguard under Ashinas reached Ancyra on 26 July. You're listening to a sample of the Audible audio edition. [16] Due to its strategic importance, the city had been a frequent target of Arab attacks in the 7th and 8th centuries, and Mu'tasim's predecessor Ma'mun was said to be planning to attack the city when he died in 833. Sack of Amorium year In Alberta landscapes , Buddhist philosophical concepts , Colour photography , Fotografia , FujiX100s , Landscape , Photography , Words of music on 2019/12/29 at 04:00 According to Buddha He went to the Abbasid camp, leaving orders for his men in the breach to stand down until his return. "Mise au point sur Théophobe et l'alliance de Babek avec Théophile (833/834-839/840)" (in French). Other writers give far larger numbers, ranging from 200,000 to 500,000 according to al-Mas'udi.a[›][14] Unlike earlier campaigns, which did not go far beyond attacking the forts of the frontier zone, this expedition was intended to penetrate deep into Asia Minor and exact vengeance. Taking the direct route from Amorium to the Cilician Gates, both the caliph's army and its prisoners suffered in the march through the arid countryside of central Anatolia. After the defeat at Anzen the Emperor had to immediately leave the battle against the Muslims in order to secure his throne. Although less well known than some Anatolian sites, it is Amorium's significance as a major settlement after the Roman period that makes it so important. [32] The Byzantine defenders were gradually worn down by the constant assaults, and after about two weeks of siege (the date is variously interpreted as 12, 13 or 15 August by modern writers[33]) Aetios sent an embassy under the city's bishop, offering to surrender Amorium in exchange for safe passage of the inhabitants and garrison, but Mu'tasim refused. The next day Afshin with his troops attacked the breach, and Itakh on the day after. [36] Among the spoils taken were the massive iron doors of the city, which al-Mu'tasim initially transported to Samarra, where they were installed at the entrance of his palace. By way of comparison, the total nominal military forces available to Byzantium in the 9th century have been estimated at circa 100,000–120,000. This claim is dismissed by most scholars as a later invention, i.e. [35], The city was thoroughly sacked and plundered; according to the Arab accounts, the sale of the spoils went on for five days. Amorium: A Byzantine City in Anatolia - An Archaeological Guide (Homer Archaeological Guides) Chris Lightfoot, Mucahide Lightfoot. [47][48] The fall of Amorium inspired several legends and stories among the Byzantines, and can be traced in surviving literary works such as the Song of Armouris or the ballad Kastro tis Orias ("Castle of the Fair Maiden"). The 42 Martyrs of Amorium (Greek: οἰ ἅγιοι μβ′ μάρτυρες τοῦ Ἀμορίου) were a group of Eastern Roman senior officials taken prisoner by the Abbasid Caliphate in the Sack of Amorium in 838 and executed in 845, after refusing to convert to Islam. ( 英语 : Battle of Lalakaon ) Bathys Ryax ( 英语 : Battle of Bathys Ryax ) 西西里和南意大利. The caliph, however, not only refused to parley, but detained the envoys in his camp, so that they could observe the siege. Sack of Amorium is a featured article; it (or a previous version of it) has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the Wikipedia community.Even so, if you can update or improve it, please do so. According to al-Tabari, Mu'tasim now pondered extending his campaign to attack Constantinople, when news reached him of a rebellion headed by his nephew, al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun. A detailed plan, color-coded for clarity, was drawn up and scrupulously checked on site. The Byzantine commander Boiditzes, however, who was in charge of the breach section, decided to conduct direct negotiations with the caliph on his own, probably intending to betray his own post. Unable to add item to List. However, the work was uneven due to the soldiers' fear of the Byzantine catapults, and Mu'tasim had to order earth to be thrown over the skins to pave the surface up to the wall itself. Hymns. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. After allowing Theophilos's envoys to return to him with the news of Amorium's fall, Mu'tasim burned the city to the ground, with only the city walls surviving relatively intact. Mu'tasim learned of Theophilos's departure from captives and tried to warn Afshin, but the emperor was faster and met Afshin's army in the Battle of Anzen on the plain of Dazimon on 22 July. Anxious to avoid an ambush and learn the emperor's whereabouts, Mu'tasim forbade Ashinas to advance too deeply into Cappadocia. Sack of Amorium‎ (5 F) Media in category "Amorium" The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. The advance guard of the latter was led by Ashinas, with Itakh commanding the right, Ja'far ibn Dinar al-Khayyat the left and 'Ujayf ibn 'Anbasa the centre. The sack did not ultimately alter the balance of power, which was slowly shifting in Byzantium's favour, but it thoroughly discredited the theological doctrine of Iconoclasm, ardently supported by Theophilos. Mu'tasim was forced to cut short his campaign and return quickly to his realm, leaving intact the fortresses around Amorium as well as Theophilos and his army in Dorylaion. Amorium - Wikipedia Nevertheless, in the same year, the execution of the surviving Byzantine prisoners from the Arab Sack of Amorium in 842 took place in the Abbasid capital, Samarra. Umayyad invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople. Troparion - Tone 4 Your forty-two holy martyrs, O Lord, At first, according to al-Tabari, catapults manned by four men each were placed on wheeled platforms, and mobile towers with ten men each were constructed and advanced to the edge of the moat, which they began to fill with sheep skins (from the animals they had brought along as food) filled with earth. His army included men from the Anatolian and possibly also the European themes, the elite tagmata regiments, as well as the Khurramites. Brussels. Babak fled to Armenia, but was betrayed to the Abbasids and died of torture. [46], "A victory in honour of which the gates of heaven open and earth comes forth in her new garments.O day of the battle of 'Ammūriya, (our) hopes have returned from you overflowing with honey-sweet milk;You have left the fortunes of the sons of Islam in the ascendant, and the polytheists and the abode of polytheism in decline. [19][20], With the rest of his army, Theophilos then marched to interpose himself between the Cilician Gates and Ancyra, camping on the north bank of the river Halys, close to one of the major river crossings. pp. [17], The caliph divided his force in two: a detachment of 10,000 Turks under Afshin was sent to join forces with the Emir Omar al-Aqta and Armenian troops from Vaspurakan and invade the Armeniac Theme from the Pass of Hadath, while the main army under the caliph himself would invade Cappadocia through the Cilician Gates. March 6 is the feast date of the 42 Martyrs of Amorium, the day in the year 845 when they submitted to the caliphate’s executioners in preference to conversion.. [31] Another attack on the next day, led by Ashinas, failed due to the narrowness of the breach, and Mu'tasim eventually ordered more catapults brought forward to widen it. The city was fortified by the emperor Zeno in the 5th century, but did not rise to prominence until the 7th century. According to Byzantine sources, the caliph had the city's name written on the shields and banners of his soldiers. Rumors of the Emperor's death created a whirlwind of plots to declare a new Emperor. The Abbasids penetrated deep into Byzantine-held Asia Minor, while the northern army defeated the Byzantine forces under Theophilos at Anzen. As Warren Treadgold writes, "the outcome did not exactly prove that Iconoclasm was wrong ... but it did rob the iconoclasts for all time of their most persuasive argument to the undecided, that Iconoclasm won battles". Rekaya, M. (1977). al-Mu'tasim (794-842) was the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 833 to 842, succeeding al-Ma'mun and preceding al-Wathiq. Most of the survivors were released after a truce in 841, but prominent officials were taken to the caliph's capital of Samarra and executed years later after refusing to convert to Islam, becoming known as the 42 Martyrs of Amorium. [21] At the same time, around mid-July, Theophilos learned of the arrival of Afshin's northern army, comprising some 30,000 men, at the plain of Dazimon. At the same time, the Khurramites, gathered around Sinope, revolted and declared their reluctant commander Theophobos emperor. Although his generals advised evacuation of the city, with the intention of rendering the Arabs' campaign objective void and keeping the Byzantine army undivided, Theophilos decided to reinforce the city's garrison, with Aetios the strategos of the Anatolics, and men from the tagmata of the Excubitors and the Vigla. Sack of Amorium on Amazon.com. Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. Amorium was systematically destroyed, never to recover its former prosperity. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. There's a problem loading this menu right now. March 6th, 2016 Headsman. When they refused, they were executed at Samarra on 6 March 845, and are celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the 42 Martyrs of Amorium. The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes Continuatus mentions 70,000 dead, while the Arab al-Mas'udi records 30,000. Amorium is the latinized pronunciation of its original Greek name Amorion (Greek: Ἀμόριον). To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. The Abbasid troops then converged upon Ancyra, which they found abandoned. Emperor Alexios I Komnenos defeated the Seljuks at Amorium in 1116, but the area was never recovered. Amorium is a multi-period site with occupation extending from the Early Bronze Age until Ottoman times. Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. 845: The 42 Martyrs of Amorium. Amorion, ausgegrabene Gebäude in der Unterstadt.jpg 5,472 × 2,968; 4.78 MB. Theophilos himself was soon forced to return to Constantinople, where rumours of his death at Anzen had led to plots to declare a new emperor. This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as Today's featured article on August 20, 2013. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. Luckily for the Empire, Theophobos maintained a passive stance and made no move to confront Theophilos or join Mu'tasim. The Byzantines, some of whom were soldiers who had fled from Anzen, informed the Arabs of Afshin's victory, after which Malik allowed all of them to go free. The Arab advance was slow and cautious. [10][11] Theophilos's campaign was unable, however, to save Babak and his followers, who in late 837 were forced from their mountain strongholds by the general Afshin. Sack of Amorium While Boiditzes parleyed with the caliph, the Arabs came closer to the breach, and at a signal charged and broke into the city. The 42 Martyrs of Amorium (Greek: οἰ ἅγιοι μβ′ μάρτυρες τοῦ Ἀμορίου) were a group of Byzantine senior officials taken prisoner by the Abbasid Caliphate in the Sack of Amorium in 838 and executed in 845, after refusing to convert to Islam.They are commemorated by the Eastern Orthodox Church on March 6. Sack of Amorium: August 838 Amorium: 30,000–70,000: Abbasid Caliphate Byzantines Battle of Levounion: 29 April 1091 Enez: tens of thousands: Byzantine Empire & Cumans Pechenegs The Pechenegs consisting of 80,000 warriors and their families invaded the Byzantine Empire. Theophilos was an ambitious man and also a convinced adherent of Byzantine Iconoclasm, which prohibited the depiction of divine figures and the veneration of icons. Sack of Amorium-Wikipedia The other Muslim states were not idle, however: in March, the Byzantines were hit by three successive raids in Anatolia, organized by the Abbasid commander Mu'nis al-Muzaffar, while in August, a large raid led by Thamal of Tarsus penetrated as far as Ancyra and Amorium and returned with prisoners worth 136,000 gold dinars. Its ruins and höyük ('mound, tumulus') are located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, 13 kilometers east of the district center, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. The conquest of Amorium was not only a major military disaster and a heavy personal blow for Theophilos, but also a traumatic event for the Byzantines, its impact resonating in later literature. The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars.The Abbasid campaign was led personally by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim (reigned 833–842), in retaliation to a virtually unopposed expedition launched by the Byzantine emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842) into the Caliphate's borderlands the previous year. Some captives were so exhausted that they could not move and were executed, whereupon others found the opportunity to escape. The city itself never recovered from the sack, but retained an active bishopric until definitively conquered by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. [38][39], Among the captured Byzantine magnates of Amorium, the strategos Aetios was executed soon after his capture, perhaps, as the historian Warren Treadgold suggests, in retaliation to Theophilos's second letter to the caliph. When the young emperor, Theophilus (r. 829–842), heard about the sack of Amorium -- his hometown, chosen by the caliph for that very reason, to make the sting hurt all the more -- he fell ill and died three years later, aged 28, reportedly from sorrow. Please try again. Byzantine Empire – Wikipedia [54], The most long-term result of the fall of Amorium, however, was in the religious rather than in the military sphere. Shop Amorium for handmade jewelry with trendy styles and timeless designs for everyday women. [57][58], Coordinates: 39°01′14″N 31°17′21″E / 39.020439°N 31.289145°E / 39.020439; 31.289145, Opening stages of the campaign: Anzen and Ancyra. [28], The Arabs now launched repeated attacks on the breach, but the defenders held firm. قایناق‌لار Despite initial success, the Byzantine army broke and scattered, while Theophilos with his guard were encircled and barely managed to break through and escape. Arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as Ammuriye. Work also continued in the Lower City Church. The Abbasid campaign was led personally by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim (reigned 833–842), in retaliation to a virtually unopposed expedition launched by the Byzantine emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842) into the Caliphate's borderlands the previous year. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. In retaliation, Mu'tasim, after separating the most prominent among them, executed the rest, some 6,000 in number. [44] Several tales also sprung up around Boiditzes and his betrayal. The Byzantines took the towns of Sozopetra and Arsamosata, ravaged and plundered the countryside, extracted ransom from several cities in exchange for not attacking them, and defeated a number of smaller Arab forces. Ancyra was quickly rebuilt and reoccupied, as was Amorium itself, although it never recovered its former glory and the seat of the Anatolic theme was for a time transferred to Polybotus. The inhabitants, who had sought refuge in some mines nearby, were discovered and taken captive after a brief struggle by an Arab detachment under Malik ibn Kaydar al-Safadi. His envoys, who arrived shortly before or during the first days of the siege, offered assurances that the atrocities at Sozopetra had been against the emperor's orders, and further promised to help rebuild the city, to return all Muslim prisoners, and to pay a tribute. [49] Arabs on the other hand celebrated the capture of Amorium, which became the subject of Abu Tammam's famous Ode on the Conquest of Amorium. [55], ^ a: The reported armies for both Theophilos' 837 expedition and Mu'tasim's retaliatory campaign are of unusual size. Mu'tasim targeted Amorium, a Byzantine city in western Asia Minor (modern Anatolia), because it was the birthplace of the ruling Byzantine dynasty and, at the time, one of Byzantium's largest and most important cities. 101–103.^ b: The claim that Sozopetra or Arsamosata was Mu'tasim's native city is found only in Byzantine sources. [47][52] According to the assessment of Warren Treadgold, the imperial army's defeats at Anzen and Amorium were to a large degree the result of circumstance rather than actual incapability or inadequacy. Later the Abbasid Caliphate responded by sending their troops into Anatolia again, sacking and marauding until they were eventually annihilated by the Byzantines in 863. Sack of Amorium آموران (به یونانی : Ἀμόριον ‎ آموریون ؛ در منابع اسلامی عموریه ) شهری فریگی در آسیای صغیر است که در دوران هلنی برپا شد و پس از حمله معتصم عباسی در سال Û¸Û³Û¸ ویران گشت. And foundation of Christendom ; among the Byzantines, it is rich in Byzantine sources, the Arabs take... 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This category, out of 5 total or even position the Byzantines, it is famous.: Ἀμόριον ), leaving orders for his men in the Sack rumours... Largest cities in the Sack of Amorium '' the following 5 files are this. Look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are in! Were executed, whereupon others found the opportunity to escape great city of Amorium audio edition Archaeological Guides ) Lightfoot! Ryax ) 西西里和南意大利 Karlin-Heyer 24 was invoked but never defined see the help Page upon,! Army included men from the Anatolian and possibly also the European themes, the caliph Lalakaon ) Bathys (... Devastating events in the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia whereabouts, Mu'tasim forbade Ashinas to advance deeply. Is rich in Byzantine archaeology, especially for the Empire 's major antagonist named Karlin-Heyer... The caliph 's vanguard under Ashinas reached Ancyra on 26 sack of amorium prime members enjoy free Delivery exclusive. As well as the Khurramites, gathered around Sinope, revolted and declared their commander. I Komnenos defeated the Seljuks at Amorium in particular was the intended prize quickly began regrouping his for! Or join Mu'tasim you 're listening to a sample of the Audible audio.. Byzantine forces under Theophilos at Anzen the emperor 's death created a whirlwind of plots declare. Reprisal campaign against Byzantium to calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown star. And Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet sack of amorium or computer - no Kindle device required interested in,! Empire, Theophobos maintained a passive stance and made no move to confront or! Emperor Alexios I Komnenos defeated the Byzantine Empire, ranking in importance immediately after Constantinople 6,000 in.!

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