fungi in coral reefs

A number of fungi live in sponges, numbers and diversity of which may vary with host species and geographical locations. Nowadays studies on microorganisms associated with sponges are primarily focused on prokaryotic organisms while the fungal community remain less studied, despite recent results emphasizing its great biodiversity and biotechnological potential, ... Penicillium antarcticum is well-known both in marine (contaminated) water (Bovio et al. The tissue transplanting and soil plate methods using malt extract agar supplemented with 70% sea water and streptomycin were used for isolation. The review includes details of recent higher order nomenclature changes, and accounts of new families, genera and species described over the past 5 years. Spreading and general characteristics. Fungi that parasitize coral reefs live in the ocean. C. cladosporioides has been reported in several marine environments, from the coral reef. The drought in Africa may be partly to blame for a decline in the coral in the Caribbean Sea, according to a team of researchers who found coral-damaging fungi in dust blown across the ocean. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Although its etiology has not been determined, a lower marine fungus was found closely associated with the disease. 16S rRNA gene-targeted amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Most of them were previously detected in soil (Godinho et al., 2015;Grishkan et al., 2006) and associated to plants (Degenkolb et al., 2006;Zimowska, 2008). Experimentally infecting sea fan fragments while increasing temperatures to reflect summertime highs in the Florida Keys, USA, caused a 176% increase in activity of host-derived antifungal compounds. Except Labyrinthula, the other fungi could not be cultured on artificial media. In this study, which was performed between January 2001 and March 2003, 35 skeleton–hypha explants were embedded in agar-based solid medium, yielding 60% hyphal growth. To date, a relatively small percentage of described species are associated with marine environments, with ∼1,100 species retrieved exclusively from the marine environment. Six compounds showed antibacterial activity, with isodihydroauroglaucin active against most of the Grampositive bacteria tested also with bactericidal activity. This is a preview of subscription content, Ainsworth TD, Thurber RV, Gates RD (2010) The future of coral reefs: a microbial perspective. In the present study the fungal community from a Mediterranean marine site chronically interested by oil spills was investigated. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an oversimplification at best. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2409–2413, Garrison VH, Foreman WT, Genauldi S, Griffin DW et al (2006) Saharan dust – a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 329:115–121, Wegley L, Edwards R, Rodriguez-Brito B, Liu H, Rohwer F (2007) Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community associated with the coral, Weir-Brush JR, Garrison VH, Smith GW, Shinn EA (2004) The relationship between gorgonian coral (Cnidaria:Gorgonacea) diseases and African dust storms. Ascomycete members of the family Koralionastaceae are obligate, marine, corallicolous fungi. Covering 70 % of Earth, oceans are at the same time the most common and the environment least studied by microbiologists. The sea fan predator snail Cypohoma gibbosum was more abundant on diseased than on healthy colonies but its density appears to have been too low to contribute significantly to infection and tissue loss. 2012). Conversely, building coral Siderastrea siderea from reefs in 3 regions of the wider Caribbean were studied using The approaches adopted in some of these studies will be compared, including mention of the problems encountered, and discussed in broad terms detailing the identification of sequences representing fungal groups and their activities. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial sequence of the nitrogenase gene (nifH), revealed a diverse group of N-fixing bacteria in association with Montipora capitata and Montipora flabellata. one or more tester strains, including the pathogen Le Campion-Alsumard T, Golubic S, Hutchings P (1995a) Microbial endoliths in skeletons of live and dead corals: Le Campion-Alsumard T, Golubic S, Priess K (1995b) Fungi in corals: symbiosis or disease? Three isolates from the Virgin Islands dust event samples morphologically identified as Aspergillus spp. The present study was aimed to explore the structure and metabolic functionality of microbial communities associated to marine hosts at the Serrana Bank, a coral atoll part of the Seaflower Biosphere Reserve (Archipelago of San Andrés, Old Providence and Saint Catalina, Colombia). It has been proposed that dust storms originating in Africa may be one way in which potential coral pathogens are distributed and deposited into the marine environments of the Caribbean. 21 species (in 17 genera), Chytridiomycota and related phyla 26 species (in 13 genera), Zygomycota three (in two genera), Blastocladiomycota one species (one genus), asexual morphs of filamentous fungi 43 (in 26 genera); and marine yeasts: Ascomycota 138 species (in 35 genera), Basidiomycota 75 species (in 26 genera). Thus, black-banding in the corals studied is caused by a series of events, beginning with an increase The prevalence of many documented infections has increased in frequency and severity in recent decades with the changing impacts of physical and chemical factors, such as temperature, acidity and eutrophication. nov. (Ascomycetes) from Coral Rock, Fungi associated with gorgonians in Singapore, African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs, Tropical Archaea: Diversity associated with the surface microlayer of corals, Microbial endoliths in skeletons of live and dead corals: Porites lobata (Moorea, French Polynesia), Occurrence of the Thraustochytrid, Corallochytrium limacisporum gen. et sp. 2017) and on leaving organisms as sponges (Park et al. Proceedings of the ninth international Coral Reef Symposium, vol 1, pp 521–526, Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine mycology: the higher fungi. While over hundreds of terrestrial fungal genera have been shown to play important roles in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, few studies have so far focused on the fungal bioremediation potential of petroleum in the marine environment. Potential PLoS One 5:e10401–e10414, Le Campion-Alsumard R (1979) Les Cyanophycées endolithes marines. Here we report evidence from the sea fan coral Gorgonia ventalina-Aspergillus host-pathogen system that temperature stress increases one component of sea fan resistance. Recent investigations indicate the tremendous potential of marine filamentous fungi as a source of new bioactive natural products. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Sterflinger K, Krumbein WE, Schwiertz A (1998) A protocol for PCR, Stoecker K, Dominger C, Daims H, Wagner M (2010) Double labelling of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence, Sumathi JC, Raghukumar S, Kasbekar DP, Raghukumar C (2006) Molecular evidence of fungal signatures in the marine protist, Sunagawa S, DeSantis TZ, Piceno YM, Brodie EL, DeSalvo MK, Voolstra CR, Weil E, Andersen GL, Medina M (2009) Bacterial diversity and White Plague Disease-associated community changes in the Caribbean coral, Toledo-Hernández C, Bones-González A, Oritz-Vázquez OE, Sabat AM, Bayman P (2007) Fungi in the sea fan, Toledo-Hernández C, Zuluaga-Montero A, Bones-González A, Rodríguez JA, Sabat AM, Bayman P (2008) Fungi in healthy and diseased sea fans (, Van Duyl FC, Gast GJ (2001) Linkage of small-scale spatial variations in DOC, inorganic nutrients and bacterioplankton growth with different coral reef water types. The lack of A. sydowii in airborne dust and sediment samples suggests that African dust is an unlikely source of the marine pathogen A. sydowii. Applying different isolation methods, incubation temperatures and media, and attempting to mimic the marine and sponge environments, were fundamental to increase the number of cultivable taxa. This finding is suggestive of a specific microbe-coral association. in the abundance of endolithic algae followed by an increase in skeletal density. Fungal enzymes in degradation of coral mucus, and plant detritus hold great promise in biotechnological applications. Four strains were selected to screen hydrocarbons degradation using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) colorimetric assay. were analysed for DOG, DIN and DIP, bacterial production and abundance. Fungal Diversity 9: 105-121. These fungi belong to 129 families and 65 orders. In addition to cytotoxicity, these compounds showed antibiotic activity and were active in a mouse xenograft model against human ovarian carcinoma. Coral reefs today face many threats: increasingly acidic oceans, rising temperatures, over-fishing, and pollution, to name a few. Changes in these factors are thought to cause significant loss of biodiversity in marine ecosystems on a global scale in general, and especially in coral reefs and shallow bays. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. Caribbean populations of the elkhorn Mar Ecol Prog Ser 322:1–14, Rohwer F, Breitbart M, Jara J, Azam F, Knowlton N (2001) Diversity of bacteria associated with the Caribbean coral, Rypien KL (2008) African dust is an unlikely source of, Rypien KL, Baker DM (2009) Isotopic labelling and antifungal resistance as tracers of gut passage of the sea fan pathogen, Rypien KL, Andras JP, Harwell CD (2008) Globally panmictic population structure in the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Sabdono A, Radjasa OK (2008) Phylogenetic diversity of organophosphorous pesticide-degrading coral bacteria from mid-west coast of Indonesia. Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, India, pp 366–385, Raghukumar C (2008) Marine fungal biotechnology: an ecological perspective. BBD samples was PCR-amplified with universal bacterial primers (27F and 1492R). nov. is described from the waters of the coral reef lagoons of Agatti, Kavaratti and Bingaram belonging to the Lakshadweep group of islands in the Arabian Sea. An earlier study identified the putative pathogen as a fungus in the genus Aspergillus (Smith et al. The sponges revealed an astonishing fungal diversity represented by 87 fungal taxa. Despite carbon-poor conditions indicated by the lack of carbon-rich fracture fillings and only minor amounts of dissolved carbon detected in formation waters, some methane was found in the drill holes. Hypothesized inputs of A. sydowii include terrestrial deposits, marine sources, and African dust. A fungal strain (F19-3-1) of the dominant (80%) morphology was isolated and propagated in agar-based solid medium. Thus, sponges provide a trophic link between corals and higher trophic levels, thereby acting as key players within reef food webs. With the use of these culture-independent methods, several undescribed fungal taxa termed as “dark matter fungi” belonging mainly to zoosporic fungi such as Blastocladiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Cryptomycota, and Neocallimastigomycota and Zygomycota including Entomophthoromycota, Kickxellomycotina, Mortierellomycotina, Mucoromycotina, and Zoopagomycotina lineages have been retrieved from marine habitats. This study also provides insights into the diversity of fungi from marine based habitats and confirm that they occupy diverse marine niches. Florida Keys, extracts from 15 species had MICs < 15 mg ml−1 against A. sydowii pathogenic to sea fans. In the present study, we describe two new genera, 37 new species and 15 new host records. The first author wishes to thank Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi for the grant of ES scheme No. Epub 2007 Jan. 15. White Band-Disease Overview. Findings have also been made in coral reefs and have been found to be, at times, beneficial to their coral hosts. The classification includes 1,112 species (in 472 genera): Ascomycota 805 (in 352 genera), Basidiomycota Reports of Archaea associated with fishes and marine invertebrates raised the question of whether Archaea might also be part of the coral-associated microbial community. fungal diversity in sea fans a strategy is proposed that combines sampling of small tissue fragments with homogenized tissue, In fact, these organisms can grow in stressful habitats, characterized by high salinity and pH, low water activity, high concentration of sodium ions and high pressure. since each technique yielded fungal species not detected by the other. J Mol Evol 56:540–563, Colaço A, Raghukumar C, Mohandass C, Cardigos F, Santos RS (2006) Effect of shallow-water venting in Azores on a few marine biota. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 160:255–263, Namikoshi M, Kobayashi H, Yoshimoto T, Meguro S, Akano K (2000) Isolation and characterization of bioactive metabolites from marine-derived filamentous fungi collected from tropical and sub-tropical coral reefs. These nifH sequences were closely affiliated with known taxa in α-, β-, γ-, and δ-proteobacteria, as well as cyanobacteria. ISME J 2:350–363, Bourne DG, Garren M, Work TM, Rosenberg E, Smith GW, Harvell CD (2009) Microbial disease and the coral holobiont. Biol Bull 209:94–106, McClanahan TR, McLaughlin SM, Davy JE, Wilson WH, Peters EC, Price KL, Maina J (2002) Observations of a new source of coral mortality along the Kenyan Coast. Coral reefs are a highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystem. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Findings revealed that the organic matter naturally released by the corals was indeed readily assimilated by both sponges and rapidly released again as sponge detritus. Two species are affected, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Gladfelter, 1982). “Coral reefs are microbial hotspots,” Apprill said. This varied from 0 to 10700/1 water, the highest number being recorded in April 1984 from the waters of the Kavaratti lagoon. The fungi were identified based on their macro-and microscopic characteristics including SEM photomicrographs and phylogenetic analylsis and most are reported for the first time from a marine environment. A fungal strain was isolated from the skeleton of a long-term culture of healthy, tissue-covered, Pocillopora damicornis Linnaeus colonies maintained in a recirculating system in Monaco. Their activity, recorded and preserved in the coral skeleton, provides information on changes m past conditions of coral growth. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum within bacterial communities in the evaluated hosts, except in P. astreoides, where Cyanobacteria was the predominant group. The frequency and impact of diseases affecting corals throughout the Caribbean have been increasing but little is known about The estimate of marine-derived fungal species has been put at over 10,000 [1] and documentation concerning the occurrence of fungal associations with marine life forms is accumulating [2][3][4]. nov (Ascomycetes) from coral rock. Labyrinthulomycetes reportedly cause diseases in animals and there are indications that they live as commensals or mutualists within the guts and tissues of marine invertebrates, as well as being saprobic on such animal materials as faeces and mollusc shells. by members of the genus Vibrio, including species sewage impacted reef site in St. Croix, which also had the highest prevalence of BBD-infected The upright branches of coral fungi are covered with basidia that produce basidiospores. A higher number of heterotrophic organisms was isolated from the yellow zone than the white zone. Fungi of coral skeletons are capable of euendolithic growth entirely within the skeleton, and of cryptoendolithic microbial contribution to the antibacterial activity Pure cultures of bioeroding fungi have been obtained from the interior of the aragonite skeleton of living corals in the Caribbean and the South Pacific. The water for nucleic acid analysis went through high decompression (60–130 bar) during sampling, whereas water samples for detection of cell counts by microscopy could be collected with slow decompression. These patterns may result from a decrease in wave action, which usually declines with water depth, and the consequent reduction in the swaying motion of the sea fans, thus affecting success of pathogen attachment and establishment. Environmental surveys using molecular tools have shown the presence of fungi from a large number of marine habitats such as deep-sea habitats, pelagic waters, coastal regions, hydrothermal vent ecosystem, anoxic habitats and ice-cold regions. In: Littler M, Littler DS (eds) Handbook of phycological methods. A collection of 84 filamentous fungi has been established from seawater samples and then the fungi were screened for their ability to utilize and degrade crude oil. Despite their varied roles, remarkably little is known about the diversity of this major branch of eukaryotic life in marine ecosystems or their ecological functions. Mar Biol 99:187–193, Mitchell J, Zuccaro A (2006) Sequences, the environment and fungi. Of note, 35.7% and 50.0% of the species detected were either reported for the first time in the marine environment or in association with sponges. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. Proc 7th Int Symp Coral Reefs 1:527–534 Loya Y (1975) Environmental predictability in relation to life histories of coral reefs. We found a highly diverse microbial assemblage associated with the corals Siderastrea siderea, Colpophyllia natans, and Orbicella annularis, the sponge Haliclona sp. nov. in the Coral Reef Lagoons of the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea, Fungal Parasites of the Marine Green Algae, Cladophora and Rhizoclonium, Lower Marine Fungus Associated with Black Line Disease in Star Corals (Montastrea annularis, E. & S.), Fungi in corals: Symbiosis or disease? Extracts from several species in two gorgonian genera (Pseudoplexaura and Pseudopterogorgia) were among the most active, with MICs < 10 mg ml−1. This paper lists the accepted names and classification of marine fungi, updating the scheme presented in 2009. Potential facultatively parasitic anamorphic ascomycetes can cause disease in corals and molluscs, The roles of endolithic fungi in bioerosion and disease in marine ecosystems. Host substrates include 62 sediments, algae (8 Rhodophyta, 9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta) and vertebrates/invertebrates (16 Bryozoa, 21 Chordata, 16 Cnidaria, 70 Porifera). by Alphaproteobacteria and contained sequences associated with bacteria of the sulfur cycle, In the last years marine-derived fungi demonstrated to be of a great interest in biotechnological research and applications. Marine environment represents an untapped source of fungal diversity, where it has been estimated that about 10% of fungi have been explored until now. This strain, isolated from the Mediterranean invasive alga Asparagopsis sp., demonstrated a strong adaptation to saline environment: it grew better on a substrate with 5% and 10% NaCl with respect to 0%. Not logged in In response to these stimuli they produce a wide range of different and structurally complex products. Both Fusarium and Neurospora exhibit wide distribution, including humid tropical and subtropical marine environments (Steele, 1967;Turner, Perkins & Fairfield, 2001;Babu et al., 2010;Summerell et al., 2010;Jebaraj et al., 2012;Saravanan & Sivakumar, 2013;Kumar, Gousia & Latha, 2015). We used five years of field data in the US Virgin Islands to investigate coral reef response to a potential gradient of stress. Fungi in coral reefs exist as endoliths, endobionts, saprotrophs and as pathogens. Reducing the size fragment increased significantly the number of species isolated per fragment. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) are generally found at depths between 130–500 feet and possess abundant plant (algal) life as well as new fish species. Among the eukaryotic groups found within the microbiomes, Ascomycota was the major representative. under conditions of increased coral stress. Similar to virus transfer between fungi and land plants, it is possible that the symbiosis and co-evolution between green algae and fungi [80,81] explains the close phylogenetic relationships of their viromes, perhaps including horizontal gene transfer events. ... Association of fungi with the corals and its skeleton has been largely considered to be pathogenic in nature 12,13 . Dominant fungi from Australian coral reefs Sarah Morrison-Gardiner Australian Institute of Marine Science; PMB 3, TownsvilleMail Centre, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 4810; e-mail: s.gardiner@aims.gov.au Morrison-Gardiner, S. (2002). Crude extracts of healthy sea fans contained detectible levels of exochitinase activity in an in vitro sp.nov. Corals and Coral Reefs. Particularly, the culture-independent techniques involving environmental cloning, next-generation sequencing are revealing a higher fungal diversity from environmental DNA samples collected from surface waters in open seas, sediments in coastal, benthic and deep sea environments, hydrothermal vents and oxygen-deficient environments. Trends Microbiol 17:554–562, Bugni TS, Ireland CM (2004) Marine-derived fungi: a chemically and biologically diverse group of microorganisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Bak RPM, Laane RWPM (1987) Annual black bands in skeletons of reef corals (Sceleractina). Mycologist 20:62–74, Morrison-Gardiner S (2002) Dominant fungi from Australian coral reefs. The macro-species composition at the shallow vents on top of the seamount was similar to the coastal and seamount area of the Azorean Archipelago. Seven Ostreobium sp-associated viruses exhibited sequence similarity to the mitoviruses most commonly found in fungi, compatible with horizontal virus transfer between algae and fungi. Thus, temperature stress and infection induce higher levels of resistance. General concepts, Morpho-molecular characterization of microfungi associated with marine based habitats, The culturable mycobiota associated with the Mediterranean sponges Aplysina cavernicola, Crambe crambe and Phorbas tenacior, Biodiversity and antifouling activity of fungi associated with two soft corals from the South China Sea, Species of Aspergillus Section Fumigati from the Coral Reefs in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea and their Antagonistic Effects Against Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Marine Fungal Ecology in the Molecular Era, Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential, Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, Sink or swim: Updated knowledge on marine fungi associated with wood substrates in the Mediterranean Sea and hints about their potential to remediate hydrocarbons, Highlighting the Crude Oil Bioremediation Potential of Marine Fungi Isolated from the Port of Oran (Algeria), Marine fungi: a preliminary screening to detect new promising strains for biotecnological applications, Widespread disease in Caribbean sea fans: I. may inactivate mechanisms used for bacterial niche sp.nov. 16.8 Aspergillosis disease of coral. Managing the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on coral reefs is highly dependant on effective strategies to assess degradation and recovery. Aspergillosis, which primarily affects Gorgonia ventalina and G. flabellum, is one of the few diseases to be characterized. Hydrobiologia 460:213–220, Hyde KD, Pointing SB (2000) Marine mycology: a practical approach. By contrast, endochitinase was detected in only 2 of 15 sea fans (13%), suggesting a high 1996). Science 199:1302–1310, Cooney RP, Pantos O, Le Tissier MDA, Barer MR, O’Donnell AG et al (2002) Characterization of the bacterial consortium associated with black band disease in coral using molecular microbiological techniques. Most isolates represent omnivorous, saprobic, dikaryomycotan anamorphs. Fungi isolated from healthy and unhealthy gorgonians belonged to similar genera, and total numbers of isolates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy gorgonians. Thus, the endoliths do not constitute a separate zone beneath the live polyps; rather, the polyp tissue and populations of endolithic algae and fungi of significant densities co-exist and interact within the same layer. For example, Pseudopterogorgia americana (Gmelin) had comparatively potent extracts but did not have sufficient concentrations in the tissue to be effective. This model includes five principle partners that exist in a dynamic equilibrium: polyps of a colonial coelenterate, endosymbiotic zooxanthellae, endolithic algae (that penetrate coral skeletons), endolithic fungi (that attack the endolithic algae, the zooxanthellae and the polyps) and prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms (which live in the coral mucus). colonies. Twenty-three separate cultures and seven genera were isolated from dust event samples whereas eight cultures from five genera were isolated from non-dust air samples. Our results show that there are likely to be energetic consequences for sponges living in sedimented environments, which may influence the energy available for other demographic processes, and therefore have implications for barrel sponge population sustainability. They were also found inside soft coral tissue. study, mucus from healthy A. palmata inhibited

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