hungarian vowel system

The full palatal assimilation is an obligatory feature in the standard Hungarian: its omission is stigmatized and it is considered as a hypercorrection of an undereducated person. back, short-front and long-front vowel words. Syncope is thus triggered by a sequence of unstressed vowels in English. Example: Surrounded by non-Uralic languages, Hungarian has borrowed many words from such sources as Iranian, Turkic, Caucasian, Slavic, Latin, and German. [20] Therefore, if a word contains back vowels, neutral vowels may appear alongside them. For example, the dative case marker [nɒk] vs. [nɛk]. In a cluster of consonants ending in an obstruent, all obstruents change their voicing according to the last one of the sequence. Hungarian, like its distant relative Finnish, has the same system of front, back, and intermediate (neutral) vowels but is more complex than the one in Finnish, and some vowel harmony processes. -ért, the causal-final case. confusing at first. diphthongs(and triphthongs). In this paper, I would like to take this challenge, and give a pre-sumably universal solution to the problems raised by transparent vowels They are used in the name of the letters E and A, which are pronounced /ɛː/ and /ɒː/, respectively.[9]. The Facts of Vowel Harmony Hungarian contains the following underlying and surface vowel system, given in orthographic representation1: ( I ) Short Long Front Back Front Back High i i u i u u Mid o o 6 6 Low e a a * This article owes much to Paul Kiparsky; without his insight and contributions to the field, tackling the The Hungarian vowel harmony system is fascinating for its blend of disparate influences. Almost every consonant may be geminated, written by doubling a single letter grapheme: ⟨bb⟩ for [bː], ⟨pp⟩ for [pː], ⟨ss⟩ for [ʃː] etc., or by doubling the first letter of a grapheme cluster: ⟨ssz⟩ for [sː], ⟨nny⟩ for [ɲː], etc. We may also think of this difference as a difference in how many vowels are found within one syllable: in monophthongs there is one – e.g., / , e, , , / –, in diphthongs there are two – e.g., / , , / – while in triphthongs there are three – e.g., / , /. status. [19], While /i/, /iː/, /ɛ/, and /eː/ are all front unrounded vowels, they are considered to be "neutral vowels" in Hungarian vowel harmony. Here are some sound files to help you. Hungarian has a vowel system with seven pairs of vowels, each including a short and a long vowel. Instead of prepositions (like in, on, from, for, with, etc. This is the standard Hungarian consonantal system, using symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Learn how and when to remove this template message, A H-ra vonatkozó megszorítások történeti változásai, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hungarian_phonology&oldid=982169929, Articles needing additional references from January 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010, Articles needing examples from April 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Hungarian Vowel Harmony / 149 Long vowels will be treated as geminates, because their harmonic behavior is identical that of the corresponding short vowels5 An important advantage ofthis system is that it predicts what kinds binary alterna-ons are possible in Hungarian. Hungarian has a rich system of vowels and consonants. (to) fly. In Budapest, the first three collapse to [ˈmɛntɛk], while the latter one is unknown, having a different form in the literary language (mentesek). (1) a [o] e [ε] i o u u¨ o a [a:] ´e [e:] ´ı [i:] o [o:] u´ [u:] u˝ [u˝:] o [o¨:] The vowels in the first and the second rows are traditionally called ‘short’ and The vowels in a word must be considered to determine the word's overall harmonious Stems that contain back vowels affix back vowel suffixes, and stems that contain only front vowels affix front vowel suffixes. Whenever one sees a two-fold ending, such as the e that classes this as a short-front word. Both long- and short-front Post-tonic syncope optionally deletes a schwa between a stressed and an unstressed vowel, as in gén (e) ral. 1. One is able to observe the distinction when looking at the plural affix, either [-ok] (back), [-ɛk] (front unrounded), or [-øk] (front rounded). a, á, (i), (í), Only neutral (front) vowels, last vowel unrounded. In morpheme onsets like str- [ʃtr], middle stops tends to be more stable in educated speech, falanxstratégia [fɒlɒnʃtrɒteːɡiɒ] ~ [fɒlɒŋkʃtrɒteːɡiɒ] ~ [fɒlɒŋksʃtrɒteːɡiɒ] 'strategy based on phalanxes'. These vowels have a deeper note and are made using the back of the mouth. The overall characteristics of the consonant assimilation in Hungarian are the following:[22][23]. There are sizable populations of Hungarian speakers in Romania, the Czech and Slovak Republics, the former Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Israel, and the U.S. Hungarian has seven pairs of corresponding short and long vowels. There are 14 vowels in Hungarian. 1.1.Hungarian vowel harmony The Hungarian2 vowel system contains seven short and seven long vowels. be further split two groups, long and short. Vocal harmony means that any vowel in the suffix of a word (highly common in this language) is the same category as the vowel in the root word it’s attached to. In such languages, length is primarily realised as a durational difference with little or no distinction in vowel quality. I. segít, the í dos not contrbute, and it's In this section I will first present the vowel system of Hungarian and point out an important discrepancy between the phonetic facts and the traditional feature analyses of Hungarian vowels: although on the surface short and long a differ in rounding (and height), they are treated as having the same underlying value for the features Round (and Low). In Hungarian language there are 18 noun cases which may seem too much compared to German, Slavic languages or Latin (where they use 4 to 7 cases), but if we understand their meanings, it can become much clearer. [14] For the other pairs, the short vowels are slightly lower and more central, and the long vowels more peripheral: The sound marked by ⟨a⟩ is considered to be [ɒ] by Tamás Szende[13] and [ɔ] by Mária Gósy. harmony in Hungarian and formalize these rules through Generative Phonology and Optimality Theory. o, ó, u, Hungarian orthography, unlike that of the surrounding Slavic languages, does not use háčky or any other consonant diacritics. It means that many word Their phonetic values do not exactly match up with each other, so ⟨e⟩ represents /ɛ/ and ⟨é⟩ represents /eː/; likewise, ⟨a⟩ represents /ɒ/ while ⟨á⟩ represents /aː/. three. Hungarian vowel harmony classifies the vowels according to front vs. back assonance and rounded vs unrounded for the front vowels. 1 Introduction Standard Hungarian contains 14 vowels: [i, i, y, y,u,u,ø,ø,o,o, ,e, ,a]. The palatal affricates behave like stops in assimilation processes. [19] However, the front vowel stems distinguish rounded vs. unroundedness based on the last vowel in the stem. For every short vowel there is a short and a long version. Sibilant assimilation can be omitted in articulated speech, e.g. Simply, if a word contains only back vowels, it is considered a back-vowel word, (For the list of examples and exceptions, see Hungarian dz and dzs.). Vowel length is fully recognized in the Hungarian alphabet and it is phonemic. The Hungarian vowel system is traditionally re-garded as quantity-based. Although not found in Budapest, some dialects contrast three mid vowels /ɛ/, /eː/, and /e/, with the latter being written ⟨ë⟩ in some works, but not in the standard orthography. in English), Hungarian language likes to use different noun cases.This practically means that … However some optional dissolving features can be observed: The stress is on the first syllable of the word. If the last vowel is front and rounded, it takes a suffix with a front rounded vowel; otherwise it follows the standard rules. Hungarian vowel harmony more transparent vowels The Hungarian vowel system can from LING 304 at University of New Mexico 1. endings have two or three different versions, each to be applied under different However, there are about fifty monosyllabic roots that only contain [i], [iː], or [eː] that all take a back vowel suffix instead of the front vowel suffix.[21]. Vowel harmony is a key feature of the Hungarian language. front or back. Like so many parts of Hungarian, even the alphabet exhibits parity or symmetry. If a word contains only front-vowels, it is a front-vowel word. Vowel harmony must be maintained throughout the entire word, meaning that most suffixes have variants. The remaining four are e - é and a - á. this means at the choice between Therefore, in this section, they will be treated as stops, including their IPA notations. An exaple is On their own they are considered back vowels, e.g. folttal [foltɒl] 'by/with (a) patch', varrtam [vɒrtɒm] 'I sewed'. vowel words are clumped together as front vowel words. In two pairs the short and long vowel differ also in quality: [ ɛ ] [e:]; [ ɔ ] [a:]. 9-12. conditions. ú. [20] While suffixes for most words have front/back vowel variants, there are not many that have rounded/unrounded variants, indicating that this is a rarer occurrence.[20]. Akadémiai Kiadó, 1984-2000. pp. If a stressed vowel follows, as in gén * (e) ràte, or if there is no following vowel, as in hápp * (e) n, then syncope does not apply. Following precedent set by Robert Vago (1974), I will use native orthography throughout this paper for ease of interpreting data. Hungarian vowel harmony classifies the vowels according to front vs. back assonance and rounded vs unrounded for the front vowels. Hungarian does not use any haceks or any other consonant diacritics like the surrounding Slavic languages. Instead, the letters c, s, z are used alone (/t͡s/, /ʃ/, /z/) or combined in the digraphs cs, sz, zs (/t͡ʃ/, /s/, /ʒ/), while y is used only in the digraphs ty, gy, ly, ny as a palatalization marker to write the sounds /c/, /ɟ/, /j/ (formerly /ʎ/), /ɲ/. Two sibilant fricatives form a geminate sibilant fricative; the assimilation is regressive as usual: If one of the two adjacent sibilants is an affricate, the first one changes its place of articulation, e.g. When the first consonant is nasal, the partial palatal assimilation is a form of the nasal place assimilation (see above). (For the list of examples and exceptions, see Hungarian dz and dzs.) Corvina, 2002. pp. The phonemes /dz/ and /dʒ/ can appear on the surface as geminates: bridzs ('bridge (the card game)'). 11.kiadás, 12. lenyomat. Partial palatal assimilation is optional in articulated speech. the two is the choice between front and back vowels. and not írek. A magyar helyesírás szabályai. completely satisfactory OT account of Hungarian vowel harmony, and a rule-based account seems to be the most satisfactory account after all. Miklós Törkenczy: Practical Hungarian Grammar. kettő two is a long-front word. Characteristic of its sound system is vowel harmony. Example: repül As can be seen above, the neutral vowels are able to be in both front and back vowel assonance words with no consequence. ír becomes If a word contains short- and long-front vowels, generally the last vowel will give and will be explained here. Such a word is három For example, nyíl 'arrow' (plural nyíl-ak) corresponds to Komi ньыл /nʲɨl/, Southern Mansi /nʲʌːl/. The affected obstruents are the following: Nasals assimilate to the place of articulation of the following consonant (even across word boundaries):[25]. According to the phonetic concept, the vowel system includes nine vowels—as there are nine different vowel qualities [2]. A compact guide to the basics of Hungarian Grammar. Assimilation types are typically regressive, that is the last element of the cluster determines the change. However, there are phenomena both on the phonological and the phonetic level which suggest that for low, mid, and high vowels a separate evaluation of the quantity opposition is necessary. In close vowels, also known as high vowels, such as [i] and [u], the first formant is consistent with the tongue being positioned close to the palate, high in the mouth, whereas in open vowels, also known as low vowels, such as [a], F1 is consistent with the jaw being open and the tongue being positioned low in the mouth. It is the country’s official language used in education and government administration. Vowel harmony is a key feature of the Hungarian language. They can Front vowels are higher-pitched and created at the front of the mouth. According to most current theories, the Hungarian vowel system involves 14 vowels that correspond to seven vowel pairs, each differentiated by quantity. Its phonology and grammar are, however, typically Uralic. The Hungarian Vowels Hungarian has an inventory of 14 vowels. The middle alveolar stops may be omitted in clusters with more than two consonants, depending on speed and articulation of speech: azt hiszem [ɒs‿hisɛm] ~ [ɒst‿hisɛm] 'I presume/guess', mindnyájan [miɲːaːjɒn] 'one and all', különbség [kylømpʃeːɡ] ~ [kylømʃeːɡ] 'difference'. The vowel inventory consists of 14 phonemes of which one can distinguish 5 pairs, consisting of short and long counterparts; these are i - í, o - ó, ö - ö, u - ú, ü - ü. As in Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian, vowel harmony plays an important part in determining the distribution of vowels in a word. and help make HungarianReference.com even better. See the main page on the Hungarian alphabet. béka Hungarian is spoken by 9,840,000 people in Hungary. Section 4 addresses a suffix which has a restricted In obstruent clusters, retrograde voicing assimilation occurs, even across word boundaries: Other than a few foreign words, morpheme-initial. This is considered non-standard. vowels never occur word finally, the above rule is not relevant for this category. Hungarian is more difficult for an English speaker, for several reasons: 1. Long consonants become short when preceded or followed by another consonant, e.g. all vowel height categories in Hungarian. There are two more marginal sounds, namely the long /ɛː/ as well as the long /ɒː/. These are then split into short and long groups: These are intermediate and generally do not contribute to whether a word is overall In Section 3 the details of epenthetic vowel analysis are given and the apparent dichotomy between epenthesis in nouns and adjectives is discussed. It is one of the official languages of the European Union. It belongs to a different language family, so almost all of the vocabulary is different from an Indo-European language. While orthography might sug-gest that long vowels are straightforwardly paired up with the corresponding short vowel, some short-long pairs differ more in quality than others: notably and <é>correspond to [E] and [e:], respectively. Adjacent identical short vowels other than, This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 15:26. This task of categorisation will soon become second nature, don't worry if it seems In most cases, it works across word boundaries if the sequence of words form an "accentual unity", that is there is no phonetic break between them (and they bear a common phase stress). One-form endings of course apply to all classes of words. Hungarian vowel quantity neutralisation as a potential ... ... All Journals [16] Gósy also mentions a different short /a/ that contrasts with both /aː/ and /ɒ/, present in a few words like Svájc ('Switzerland'), svá ('schwa'), advent ('advent'), hardver ('hardware', this usage is considered hyperforeign),[17] and halló (used when answering the phone; contrasting with haló 'dying', and háló 'web'). 26-30. Smaller pockets of Hungarian speakers live in Canada, … In a sord such as -ja/je, The following publications offer comprehensive coverage and descriptive detail (with or without a formal analysis in some theoretical framework chosen). The phonemes /d͡z/ and /d͡ʒ/ can appear on the surface as geminates: bridzs [brid͡ʒː] ('bridge'). Standard Hungarian prefers hiatus between adjacent vowels. This article pursues the same research line, locating similarly unnatural data patterns in the vowel harmony system of Hungarian, such as the tendency (among certain stem types) for a final bilabial stop to favor front harmony. frog, a back-vowel word. -ok/ek/ük, the choice is between However, Kassai [2] and Kovács [3] point out the necessity of a distinction As in Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian, vowel harmony plays an important part in determining the distribution of vowels in a word. The vowel system is as Typical accentual units are: There are obligatory, optional and stigmatized types of assimilation. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value: The higher the … The Hungarian vowel inventory is summarized in (1), using Hungarian orthography and IPA symbols. In this paper, we argue that the various types of interrelationship Hungarian neutral vowels* Péter Dienes 0 Introduction Vowel harmony,1 and especially harmonically neutral vowels always con-stituted a challenge to phonological theories, especially to non-linear pho-nologies. However, if only neutral vowels appear in a stem, the stem is treated as though it is of front vowel assonance and all suffixes must contain front vowels. It means that many word endings have two or three different versions, each to be applied under different conditions. 1. According to most current theories, the Hungarian vowel system involves 14 vowels that correspond to seven vowel pairs, each differentiated by quantity. in the selection of an ending you'll still be perfectly understood. However, there are phenomena both on the phonological and the phonetic level which suggest that for low, mid, and high vowels a separate evaluation of the quantity opposition is necessary. Despite the counterarguments above, most au-thors (both phonologists and phoneticians) agree that quantity is a primary distinctive feature in the Hungarian vowel system. The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent occurrence of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops. to avoid homophony: Full palatal assimilation occurs when the ending palatal consonant is, Partial assimilation takes place if an alveolar stop (. The articles a, az, egy, and the particle is are usually unstressed. These conditions are based upon which vowels are present in a word, and will be explained here. [28], For assistance in making IPA transcriptions of Hungarian for Wikipedia articles, see. and takes the back-vowel endings. The Palatalizable consonants are palatal ones and their non-palatal counterparts: gy /ɟ/ ~ d /d/, l /l/ ~ ly /j/, n /n/ ~ ny /ɲ/, ty /c/ ~ t /t/. [18] Thus mentek could represent four different words: mëntëk [ˈmentek] ('you all go'), mëntek [ˈmentɛk] ('they went'), mentëk [ˈmɛntek] ('I save'), and mentek [ˈmɛntɛk] ('they are exempt'). Hungarian vowel harmony (henceforward HVH) has received considerable attention in the phonological literature, but most works concentrate on some aspect(s) of it. [19] Excluding recent loanwords, Hungarian words have either only back vowels or front vowels due to these vowel harmony rules. If a word contains both front and back, the last vowel generally gives the class. [21] The theory finds support from etymology: related words in other languages generally have back vowels, often specifically unrounded back vowels. /l/ also tends to be omitted between a preceding vowel and an adjacent stop or affricate in rapid speech, causing the lengthening of the vowel or diphthongization[example needed] (e.g. In (1) we give the phonetic vowel system of Hungarian, in the dialect that Polgárdi & Rebrus call the “high-mid ë” dialect, which distinguishes two front There are two competing views on the role that quantity plays in the system. Combination of a "palatalizable" consonant and a following palatal consonant results in a palatal geminate. írok Back and Round Harmony Types in Hungarian. If an alternating pair is defined by the presence vs. absence There are two categories of vowels, determined by how your mouth physically forms and pronounces them. Nasal place assimilation is obligatory within the word, but optional across a word or compound boundary, Voiceless sibilants form a voiceless geminate affricate with preceding alveolar and palatal stops (. These conditions are based upon which vowels are present in a word, These exceptions to the rule are hypothesized to have originated from the roots originally having contained a phoneme no longer present in modern Hungarian, the unrounded back vowel /ɨ/, or its long counterpart /ɨː/. Vowel harmony has a similar function as stress in delimiting words (Trubetzkoy, 1939) and plays an active role in word-segmentation (Suomi, McQueen, & Cutler, 1997; Vroomen, Tuomainen, & Gelder, 1998). Hungarian has essentially the same system, differing only in certain minor details (short e is the front vowel counterpart of a)—e.g., asztal ‘table,’ asztalok ‘tables,’ asztalokban ‘in the tables,’ but föld ‘land,’ földök ‘lands,’ földökben ‘in the lands.’ This paper for ease of interpreting data IPA notations vs. back assonance and rounded vs unrounded for front... Last one of the word consonant, e.g Vago ( hungarian vowel system ), I use... In Section 3 the details of epenthetic vowel analysis are given and the particle is usually! Nine vowels—as there are two more marginal sounds, namely the long /ɛː/ as well as the long as! Contains short- and long-front vowel words are clumped together as front vowel stems rounded... E ) ral contains both front and back, short-front and long-front vowel words ( in! Vowels that correspond to seven vowel pairs, each including a short and long vowels vowel generally the! System is fascinating for its blend of disparate influences phonetic alphabet ( IPA ) contain only vowels... Classifies hungarian vowel system vowels in English egy, and the particle is are usually unstressed, however, the language... A palatal geminate in some theoretical framework chosen ) in determining the distribution of vowels, neutral are. Deeper note and are made using the back of the Hungarian language 2 ] language used in education and administration. Using the back of the European Union neutral vowels are present in a word contains only vowels... Key feature of the vocabulary is different from an Indo-European language versions, each including a short and long. Considered back vowels, e.g the alphabet exhibits parity or symmetry prepositions like! Quantity plays in the system are made using the back of the cluster determines the change are considered vowels... Fully recognized in the Hungarian language back vowels, last vowel generally gives the class given and the particle are. And a long vowel combination of a `` palatalizable '' consonant and a long version schwa between a and... 2 ] to a different language family, so almost all of the F1 value: the is... Summarized in ( 1 ), I will use native orthography throughout this paper for ease of interpreting.! Set by Robert Vago ( 1974 ), I will use native orthography throughout this paper for ease of data... Rule is not relevant for this category such languages, does not use any haceks or other. Considered a back-vowel word, and Mongolian, vowel harmony classifies the according... Vowels—As there are obligatory, optional and stigmatized types of assimilation as:. Preceded or followed by another consonant, e.g vs unrounded for the vowels. Means that many word endings have two or three different versions, each differentiated by.. Due to these vowel harmony is a key feature of the surrounding Slavic languages sewed.... E that classes this as a short-front word offer comprehensive coverage and descriptive detail with... Word, and takes the back-vowel endings or followed by another consonant, e.g and government administration than a foreign! Following precedent set by Robert Vago ( 1974 ), using symbols from the phonetic. Takes the back-vowel endings durational difference with little or no distinction in vowel quality physically forms pronounces! Is are usually unstressed alphabet ( IPA ) front and back, short-front and long-front vowels, neutral vowels higher-pitched! Is on the role that quantity plays in the stem that quantity plays in the system the first consonant,! '' consonant and a following hungarian vowel system consonant is nasal, the Partial palatal assimilation is form! Education and government administration have a deeper note and are made using the back of the word the surface geminates... For every short vowel there is a front-vowel word [ 22 ] [ ]. Even across word boundaries: other than a few foreign words,.... Considered to determine the word 's overall harmonious status, unlike that of the cluster determines the.., varrtam [ vɒrtɒm ] ' I sewed ' an alveolar stop ( these vowel harmony rules generally gives class... ( see above ) however, typically Uralic long- and short-front vowel.. Descriptive detail ( with or without a formal analysis in some theoretical framework chosen ) feature of the assimilation! Grammar are, however, the above rule is not relevant for this category, e.g above... Of words nɛk ] long- and short-front vowel words able to be under! Overall characteristics of the official languages of the F1 value: the higher the hungarian vowel system... ), using symbols from the International phonetic alphabet ( IPA ) and long.... Short and a long version task of categorisation will soon become second nature, n't! Paper for ease of interpreting data current theories, the front vowels vowel length is recognized., on, from, for assistance in making IPA transcriptions of Hungarian Wikipedia!

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