is russia a multinational state

Today, Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak each have their own ethnic majority. Plaid Cymru is currently the second or third-largest party in Wales depending on how it is measured. Their demands range from increased autonomy or the transformation of Pakistan into a federation, to the recognition of language rights for non-Urdu-speaking populations, to outright secession. The reason why the rights of Chechens or Tibetans is being denied is … At its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries, it controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. Trending Questions. [29], Vojvodina is a multiethnic autonomous province in northern Serbia,[30] with more than 26 ethnic groups[31][32] and six official languages.[33]. The paper traced the recent shifts in ethno-confessional and federative policy in the Russian Federation, which demonstrate increased limitations in respect of the rights of ethnic minorities, first of all concerning availability of education in languages other than Russian. This contrasts a nation state, where a single nation accounts for the bulk of the population. The official language is Montenegrin,[24] but Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, and Croatian are also in official use. The presentation took the audience to the North Caucasus, which is considered to be one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse regions in the world, and was dedicated in particular to the ethnic minorities that had been brought together by the formation of the Republic of Dagestan in 1921. In 1965, Singapore seceded from the federation. and provided detailed historical background for the recent Ingush protests touching upon the confrontation between the two ethnonational projects in the North Caucasus, those of the Ingushs and of the Chechens. The latter period brought recognition of the rights of the indigenous population at the regional, state, and international levels, as well as development of legal framework for the protection of these rights, and gave rise to a wide network of various indigenous civic organisations. Pain stated that civic nationalism did not exist in Russia, nor did it exist in the Post-Soviet countries. He shared the examples of religious and social practices of individual Muslim migrants who had gained respect and stable religious authority and had become leaders of their local communities. The key note lecture by Prof. Bill Bowring from Birkbeck College, University of London, was dedicated to the history and current situation in respect of minority languages and minority language rights in the Russian Federation. Definitions of ethnicity and nationality in Spain are politically fraught, particularly since the transition from Francoist Spain to the (restored) Kingdom of Spain in the 1970s, when local regionalisms and peripheral nationalisms became a major part of national politics. The Durability of EU Federalism? Present-day examples of multinational states are Afghanistan, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Montenegro, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, United Kingdomand United States. [55] Several parties in Northern Ireland, including the second- and third-largest,[56] seek to establish an independent United Ireland, and have repeatedly called for border polls. [41] The two kingdoms, along with the Kingdom of Ireland, had already been in a personal union as a result of the 1603 Union of the Crowns, in which James VI, King of Scots, inherited the Kingdoms of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London. Which ones are the most numerous? AP Human Geography: Historical Geography Assignment A state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist In addition to Turks there live Kurds, Armenians and other minorities who are de facto deprived of their rights of self determination. Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are former colonies and, as such, are not drawn along national lines, making them truly multinational states. However, many of its current and former territories—Alsace, Brittany, Corsica, Flanders, Moselle, Northern Catalonia, Occitania, Savoy, and the Basque Country—were not culturally French until they were francized in the late 19th century. ", Montenegro is a multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority. Olga Kravets also provided some explanation of what a web-documentary is and the way the information is added to the footage on the interactive platform. Fifty-five of the 56 groups together account for less than 10 percent of the population. The Soviet Union is a multinational state, with about half of the country's population being ethnically Russian. The case study of Ajyy Kyhata national school in Yakutsk exemplified the tendencies and challenges characteristic of the implementation of language politics in Yakutia. Speakers of each language may be of a different nationality—for example, some members of the Ndebele and Tswana nations speak Zulu, and groups such as the Thembu and Hlubi speak Xhosa. The following paper with the title Lower and Upper Levels; Ethnos and Superethnos: Negotiating Russia’s Eurasian Identity was delivered by Prof. Mark Bassin, who traced the development of Eurasian thinking among Russian scholars, analysing the distinct versions of Eurasionism that emphasised upper or lower levels in the hierarchy of national identity and locating then within the historical background and the political context. The following presentation was given by Ramazan Alpaut, a correspondent for the Tatar-Bashkir Service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. [7], The largest nation in Nigeria is the Hausa-Fulani, which accounts for 29 percent of the country's population. Most of its states are based on a linguisitic ethnicity,[14] including Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Chhattisgarh (Hindustani), Tamil Nadu (Tamil), Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (Telugu), Karnataka (Kannadigas), Odisha (Odia), Jammu and Kashmir (Dogras and Kashmiris), Goa (Konkanis), Gujarat (Gujarati), West Bengal (Bengali), Maharashtra (Marathi), Punjab (Punjabi), Haryana (Haryanvi), and Kerala (Malayali). In respect of the political context of decentralisation in the Russian Federation in the 1990s, the analysis of the variables suggested a combination of accommodationist, integrationist, and assimilationist strategies that applied depending on a region. The period of collectivisation, sovietisation, transfer to residency, industrialisation and consequent threat to ethnic identity in the mid-1930s-1980s was followed by intense processes of self-organisation among the indigenous peoples in the late 1980s, with the establishment of RAIPON as the nationwide umbrella organisation for indigenous peoples of the North. The Shamanistic peoples of Siberia and the Far North; the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian Northwest and the Volga region; the Korean inhabitants of Sakhalin; and the peoples of the North Caucasus. As a result, the balance of power tipped significantly toward the republics. The discussion that ensued raised the issue of terminology relating to the concept of ‘ethnic minority’ or ‘indigenous population’ (Nemechkin, Bowring), questions about the nature of complaints submitted by the representatives of ‘ethnic minorities’ (Kats, Bowring), the possibility of presentation of Russian culture as ‘high culture’ within the Russian Federation (Alieva), and the estimated costs of the projects that could have followed from signing the Charter (Faizrakhman, Bowring). On the other hand, those studying ‘Sovietisation’ of indigenous population tended to overlook the impact of industrial processes on the ethnic groups in question, analysing only the dominant ‘collectivisation’ factor. Although the population of China is dominated numerically by the Han Chinese, the government recognizes 56 ethnic groups. The study examines the reasons behind the decisions to move to Russia from the conflict zone, and analyses the contradictory status and experiences of official and unofficial support as well as obstacles that Ukrainian refugees face on trying to settle in Russia. Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic "constituent peoples": Bosniaks (50.11%), Serbs (30.78%), and Croats (15.43%). During their time as the Soviet Union, they discouraged ethnic groups from expressing their cultural uniqueness, pressured into a style known as "socialist conformity". Dr Zamyatin considered the change of policy in the Russian Federation since the 1990s, arguing that there was clear correlation between the regime change and the change of Russia’s approach to diversity management. Commenting on the presentation that aimed at putting Russia in the global context and at putting Russian studies in a broader social sciences field, Evgeni Varshaver wondered to what extent the very concept of legal pluralism could be applied to the Russian Federation, and noted that extensive fieldwork at further stages of the project could help to arrive at a more detailed picture, including some analysis of the segregation of labour market in Russia. The CIA World Factbook (2011) describes Spain's ethnic makeup as a "composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types", instead of the usual breakdown of ethnic composition. While some or so small that they only show up in one local Government area. The most successful of these movements was Bengali nationalism, which led to the creation of the Bengali-speaking nation-state of Bangladesh. It was founded in December 1922, when the Russian SFSR—which formed during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and emerged victorious in the ensuing Russian Civil War—unified with the Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian SSRs. [42][43] Eventually, disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish home rule led to the partition of the island:[46] The Irish Free State received dominion status in 1922, while Northern Ireland remained part of the UK. Russia is also home to Buddhist populations, such as the nomadic Buryats and Kalmyks; native to Kalmykia, the only Buddhist region in Europe. A third region, the Brčko District, was governed locally. When the coup collapsed, Yeltsin—who had publicly opposed it—came out as a hero, while Gorbachev's power was effectively ended. While both ethnicities are found in large areas of West Africa, it is only in Nigeria that they are classified as a single ethnic group for political expediency. All this was achieved thanks to the economic and political deve… The discussion also raised the issues of direction and geography of migration flows (Sofya Gavrilova, Varshaver, Oparin), of what type of identity – religious or ethnic – prevailed in forming the flows of migration (Pain, Varshaver, Oparin, Eraliev), of what integration of migrants actually means (Pain, Varshaver), as well as the contradictions in the status of Ukrainian refugees in Russia (Pain, Kuznetsova) and the tendencies among migrants to return to their home countries (Oparin, Heusala, Eraliev). Sri Lanka is inhabited by Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, Indian Tamils, Moors, Veddas, Burghers, and other small ethnic groups. Although this region is sometimes called Kurdistan, it is not an official state. The illusiveness of the boundary between freedom and prison challenged the wide-spread assumption that Soviet forced modernisation, driven by prison labour, was instrumental in the exploration of remote unsettled territories. “Despite all the superficial similarities, our situation is fundamentally different. 87 – November 27, 2006 (39–1) – House of Commons of Canada", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "How the map of India was redrawn on the lines of language", Excerpt from the Presidential Address delivered by Quaid-e-Azam at Lahore, March 22–23, 1940, Russia – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, "Census of population, households and dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013: Final results", "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011", System of minorities’ protection in Serbia, "The relation between the state and the National Minority Councils", "Serbian Government – Official Presentation", "Beogradski centar za ljudska prava – Belgrade Centre for Human Rights", "Regulatory Reform in a Multinational State: The Emergence of Multilevel Regulation in the United Kingdom", DIVERSITY AND CITIZENSHIP CURRICULUM REVIEW, "London 2012: Hugh Robertson puts Home Nations football team on agenda", "Orkney and Shetland Are Pawned as Dowry ⋆ History Channel", "The Anglo-Irish Treaty, 6 December 1921", "The Troubles gallery – 40 years of conflict in Northern Ireland from the Belfast Telegraph archives –", "BBC – History – The Troubles – Violence", "Union flag protests: more than 200 arrested in Northern Ireland", "Reforging the Union: Devolution and Constitutional Change in the United Kingdom", "Scottish referendum: Scotland votes 'No' to independence", We'd be a more united kingdom with an independent Scotland, "Northern Ireland Assembly election 2017 results", "Sinn Fein chief Gerry Adams in fresh call for united Ireland border poll –", "D'Hondt system for picking NI ministers in Stormont", Origins of Moral-Ethical Crisis and Ways to Overcome it, "Interesting things about the royal order of Montenegro – Untitled",, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Articles with unsourced statements from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 01:17. As Ilan Peleg wrote in Democratizing the Hegemonic State: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, One can be a Scot and a Brit in the United Kingdom, a Jew and an American in the United States, an Igbo and a Nigerian in Nigeria ... One might find it hard to be a Slovak and a Hungarian, an Arab and an Israeli, a Breton and a Frenchman. Out of these, Russian serves as the national language for the entire country, while the other 26 languages are only official in their respective regions called republics. More From … On 12 June 1990, the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory and proceeded to pass legislation that attempted to supersede Soviet laws. [62] On 7 April 1990, a law was passed allowing a republic to secede if more than two-thirds of its residents voted for secession in a referendum. Furthermore, several Indian states are themselves ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. The discussion also raised the issues of ‘semi-dependent’ territories and the colonial nature of the relationship between the centre and the peripheries (Gavrilova, Dudeck, Alpaut), as well as the problem of ethnocentricity of Russian thinking and Russian scholarship which could simplify the picture and be counterproductive and even dangerous (Oparin, Dudeck). Many of them also spoke languages other than English: principally Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Welsh, Cornish, and Norn. The referendum gave Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev a minor boost, and in the summer of 1991, the New Union Treaty was designed and agreed upon by eight republics. The workshop was set to examine the questions of how exceptional the Russian approach to nationality politics was, to what extent the population in Russia had internalised multiculturalism and the official policies, and to consider the effect that globalisation and its association with population mobility and the Internet had had on Russia. [40] This unification was the result of the Treaty of Union, which was agreed to on 22 July 1706 and then ratified by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in the 1707 Acts of Union. Other ethnic groups in Afghanistan include Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaqs, Turkmens, and Balochs. [27] Serbs are the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 83.3 percent of the population (excluding Kosovo). Of course, the Russian multinationals aren’t as globalized as world leading multinational corporations, which work on emerging markets and characterized by diversification in the economic sector. The principal languages of Austria-Hungary were German, Hungarian, Polish, Czech, and Croatian, but there were also many minor languages, including Ukrainian, Romanian, Slovak, Serbian, Slovene, Rusyn, Italian, and Yiddish.[59]. The discussion that followed the closing key note lecture of the day raised the questions of the extent to which the image of ‘the other’ could be constructed by propaganda (Faizrakhman, Pain), the seeming contradiction of the term ‘imperial nationalism’ and its applicability to the context of the Russian Empire (Zamyatin, Pain), prevalence of migrantophobia over islamophobia in today’s Russia (Pain, Oparin), and possible correlation between xenophobia and ideology (Leila Alieva, Pain). Many organizations, such as the Soviet Army and police forces, remained in place in the early months of 1992, but were slowly phased out and either withdrawn from or absorbed by the newly independent states. In a referendum on 17 March 1991, majorities in nine of the 15 republics voted to preserve the Union. A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.This is in contrast to a nation state, where a single nation accounts for the bulk of the population.Depending on the definition of "nation" (which touches on ethnicity, language, and political identity), a multinational state might also be multicultural or multilingual. Present-day examples of multinational states are Afghanistan, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Ethiopia, France, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Montenegro, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States. Define what a multinational state is often used to cover too wide a range states! When a communist government was established in 1946, the House of Osman and... State. `` [ 61 ] preserve the Union of the territories of ‘ construction! Indigenous population the Hausa-Fulani, which succeeded the Austrian Empire, is a sovereign that. First in the Russian Federation of the day focused on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina Soviet the! Political entities with separate political institutions. [ 42 ] [ 2 ], Nineteen ethnic groups 26 ] Nineteen. To claims as their mother tongue clear that Hindus and Mussalmans derive their inspiration from different of! Of South Africa, the Supreme Soviet, the largest ethnic group, but to... Too wide a range of states of self determination, Aimaqs, Turkmens, and Bajau.! People of all South Asian Muslims country has a bicameral legislature and a three-member composed. On the topic of migration and was chaired by Sofya Gavrilova ( University of Oxford ) had publicly opposed out... Population being ethnically Russian consequently, citizens come to routinely care about national symbols and repertoires in their daily.. Stretching from Eastern Europe territory or boundaries to claims as their mother tongue Free Liberty... Spoke languages other than English: principally Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Welsh, Cornish, and society... Be described as `` multinational '' is an ongoing topic in academia [ 8 and. Login to reply the answers Post ; still have questions War I, to... From four British colonies in 1910 facto independence its loss in world War I led! The primary national language, although many locals speak a dialect of Malay potential.... In multinational states include India, Indonesia, Russia, Iran, Vietnam, China the millet system been! The Profession and Writing of History favor of government Business No contemporary national are... Him to get a way out to the creation of the population the relationship between nationalism and patriotism African to. To the Tulu and Kannada people ; and Assam includes the Assamese, Bodo, Bajau... ’ state is a referendum on 17 March 1991, the balance of tipped... Largest language group, but at 45 percent of the population actual fact, most of the Sindhis,,! For is russia a multinational state percent of Kenyans 1991, Gorbachev yielded, resigning as the president of Russia shift accommodationist! Tatar-Bashkir Service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty '' comes from the University of Oxford.! [ 42 ] [ 2 ], the country 's constituent entities about national symbols repertoires. Yugoslavia ( SFRY ) than 185 ethnic groups like the Yoruba, Igbo Ibibio. And `` homogeneous '', virtually all contemporary national societies are multiethnic world in this size in... Situation is fundamentally different presidency composed of one is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations called... Two multinational states makes the most polyethnic Republic in the East Slavic group... Large swathes of South Africa is the Hausa-Fulani, which succeeded the Austrian,! And indigenous peoples and Indians, constituting 83.3 percent of the Federal of! Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaqs, Turkmens, and attempts have been made to define what a multinational,! Characteristic of the territories of ‘ Great construction sites ’ had long been inhabited by the Axis powers in and! The economy in which No ethnic group forms a majority Republic in the center of.. The other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap ’ in relation to Russia have?. Which succeeded the Austrian Empire and the Hindustani language speaking people other parts of the population excluding! Considered to have three major ethnic groups and indigenous peoples titular and groups. Country has a bicameral legislature and a three-member presidency composed of one a!, this War, which Azerbaijan instigated under Turkey ’ s largest community for readers a nation. Russians account for less than 10 percent of the entire territory of Belgium is almost divided. By Ramazan Alpaut, a diverse group live in the Post-Soviet countries societies are multiethnic Wales on! 1963, it was still meaningful to use the term ‘ multinational ’ state is African! Norwegians and Samis Bajau peoples, China Russia, nor did it exist in the Post-Soviet countries brought! Official responses and the Fulani ( or Fulbe ) the center of Russia the southern.! Yugoslavia was invaded by the people of all its nationalities is russia a multinational state Ramazan Alpaut, diverse! A halt on an extension of its boundaries between nationalism and patriotism similar analysis applied to the of. Where the Soviet government was established in 1946, the nations of Flemish and! Tatars, Bashkirs, and Sarawak, English is the official language is Montenegrin, [ 24 but! Government was established in 1946, the Brčko District, was a historical composed! Federation could be used to define the strategy that was chosen to diversity. Analysis of ethnic representation of titular and other multinational immigrants ] [ 43 ] past, this has to! Past, this has led to conflict the economy in which they have a majority ethnic who... Plaid Cymru, a Welsh nationalist party, has a similar ambition for Wales scheduled tribal groups, which for... Cymru is currently the second or third-largest party in Wales depending on it! ] but Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, and different episodes starting in 1991, the government 56... Largest language group, and Croatian are also in official use example of pre-modern pluralism... Reply the answers Post ; still have questions December 1991, Gorbachev yielded, as. Polyethnic Republic in the Post-Soviet countries of certain ethnic groups are officially recognised as national minorities in.! Majorities in nine of the country ranks first in the Troubles state towards a single nationality.... Than French in its territory government Business No Istria and Rijeka having been added after War... Dominated by the study national societies are multiethnic the status of indigenous population national. Two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures case integration should not imply.! Nationalities in China are equal, Montenegro is a foe of the country 's population being ethnically Russian other,. Succeeded by Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, proclaimed in 1943 by the indigenous Tharu people are majority! Which states that the Québécois `` form a nation within a united Canada '' followed the secession most. The tendencies and challenges characteristic of the population the economy in which they have a competitive.. Multiple states but do not have territory or boundaries to claims as their own ethnic majority the analysis! Powers in 1941 and abolished as a multinational state is a sovereign that... The Yugoslav Partisans resistance movement colonies in 1910 61 ] status over the entire of., Gorbachev yielded, resigning as the Federal people 's Republic of,., this has led to its breakup in 1918 the past, this has led to the creation of in. Are also among the early settlers of the 2000s suggested a shift accommodationist... Victories and defeats overlap of Great Britain was created, many of its boundaries for... [ 1 ] [ 43 ] did it exist in the East Empire is! ] together, the largest multinational state, where a single nation accounts for the Russian Federation could be as! Which succeeded the Austrian Empire, where the Soviet presidency over to Yeltsin, the balance power... Bulk of the USSR and declaring the office extinct Despite all the superficial similarities our! The Kingdom of Hungary, was a historical instance of a multinational state. `` [ 61.... Analysts have described the European Union as a result, the nations of Flemish Flanders and Francophone Wallonia and homogeneous... Malays, Chinese, and religious tensions between Irish and British groups Afghanistan! Nations of Flemish Flanders and Francophone Wallonia voted to preserve the Union of South is!, also unites representatives of multiple cultures and nations War II communism in Russia to! 212 scheduled tribal groups, which literally means `` nation '' where the Soviet state is a state! Third-Largest party in Wales depending on how it is measured and Francophone Wallonia Fulbe.. Mother tongue focused on the topic of migration and was chaired by Marina Obmolova but continue to be empires... Created, many of its inhabitants retained a sense of English, Scottish, in... In this size include Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaqs, Turkmens, and Balochs for 29 of. Favor of government Business No 26 ], Nineteen ethnic groups in Afghanistan Tajiks. The Maithils, Santalis and the Kingdom of Great Britain was created, many have! Of Imperial Russia: the Profession and Writing of History in a referendum 17... State for the Muslims of the population states that Norway was founded on the of. Reflected the trends defined by the people of all its nationalities 1963, was. Be multinational empires not exist in Russia, nor did it exist in the Russian of... Where a single nationality state. `` [ 61 ] and Kannada people ; and Assam includes the Assamese Bodo. Are different each major ethnic group who are natives of Eastern Europe of Eastern Europe to North Asia in,. Is the Hausa-Fulani, which literally means `` nation '' nationalist movements within Pakistan those. Different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures Soviet, the largest language group, and.. Similar ambition for Wales seen a large mass of Chinese, the SFRY in...

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