2012. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the superfamily Coccoidea. Scale Insects, Soft Scales, Wax Scales Family Coccidae This page contains pictures and information about Scale Insects in family Coccidae that we found in the Brisbane area, Queensland, Australia. However, the majority of female scale insects are sedentary as adults. Mass rearing of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis,for production of natural enemies. Although extensively distributed world-wide, the fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus), was first discovered in Florida at several nursery and stock dealers in 1994 and 1995. A few nymphs are visible at the left. Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance, from very small organisms (1â2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oysters, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 mm), to animals covered with mealy wax. 2000. It has been a pest of Ixoraspp. Some of these overwinter in crevices in the bark or among plant litter, moving in spring to tender young growth. They feed on a wide variety of plants but are unable to survive long away from their hosts. Soft scale (for example pink wax scale and soft brown scale) are usually found on the mid-rib of leaves and stalks of host plants. This type of scale bugs on citrus exudes a protective coating made up of wax and cast skins of prior instars, which creates its armor. Others produce commercially valuable substances including carmine and kermes dyes, and shellac lacquer. In some Diaspididae and Pseudococcidae, both sexes are produced from fertilized eggs but during development males eliminate the paternal genome and this system called paternal genome elimination (PGE) is found in nearly 14 scale insect families. The sooty mold can cause a significant reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value (Hodges et al. 2009). Males pass through a first and second instar stage, a pre-pupal and a pupal stage before adulthood. Others attack a variety of hosts such as white wax scale occurring on gardenias and citrus; and cottony cushion scale occurring on figs, rose, magnolias, grevilleas and â¦ Three parasitoids are known to attack Florida wax scales in some parts of the United States. This is unusual among insects; it most closely resembles the situation in the true flies, the Diptera. In more primitive families there is an additional instar stage. Adults: Adult female Florida wax scales are elliptical, reddish brown with a short anal process (Hamon and Williams 1984), and range from 2 to 4 mm in length and 1 to 3.5 mm in width. Tea scale insects are about the size of a hyphen, appear slightly fuzzy and are white or brown. A cladogram showing the major families using this methodology is shown below. Scale insects are usually divided into two groups: soft scale, and hard or armored scale. Soft scale (family Coccidae) Soft scales are probably the most commonly encountered species of scale insect in production nurseries (refer to Table 1). In 2013, we added Indian wax scale, white prunicola scale and juniper scale to the monitoring list to better determine crawler periods. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. On the University of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Featured Creatures website: Reproduction and the genetics of sex determination, "The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis", "Large population size predicts the distribution of sexuality in scale insects", "Which host-dependent insects are most prone to coextinction under changed climates? The wax scales are globular in shape and coated with a heavy layer of wet-looking white, beige to pinkish or gray wax. Common examples include azalea bark scale, Magnolia scale, Indian wax, cottony camellia scale, and European fruit lecanium. Males are not known in this species (Futch et al. They are: Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) (Aphelinidae), Metaphycus eruptor Howard (Encyrtidae), and Scutellista cynea Motschulsky (Pteromalidae) (Drees et al. There are various strategies for dealing with deciduous trees. The fungus benefits by metabolising the sap extracted from the tree by the insects. , Natural enemies include parasitoid wasps, mostly in the families Encyrtidae and Eulophidae, and predatory beetles such as fungus weevils, ladybirds and sap beetles. Many species produce a thick convex wax layer, but others do not. Plant death is also possible. A range of predators and parasites will attack pink wax scale.  Many tropical plants need ants to survive which in turn cultivate scale insects thus forming a three-way symbiosis. In some species, sexual and asexual populations are found in different locations, and in general, species with a wide geographic range and a diversity of plant hosts are more likely to be asexual.
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